Punctuation Pattern Sheet

A clause is a group of related words that has a subject and a verb. Clauses can be independent or dependent. 

· An independent clause can stand alone as a complete sentence.

· e.g. The Astronomy Club scheduled meetings at an isolated hilltop observatory.

· A dependent (or subordinate) clause is a group of words that cannot stand alone as a sentence, even though it contains a subject and a verb.

· e.g. Whenever it could, the Astronomy Club scheduled meetings at an isolated hilltop observatory.


Sentences typically obey the following format concerning clauses and punctuation:

Independent clause .

 Independent clause ; independent clause   .

Independent clause ;  however   ,  independent clause
  ; therefore
  ; consequently ,  
  ; likewise ,  
  ; moreover ,  
  ; then ,  
  ; still ,  
  ; also ,  
  ; otherwise ,  
  ; nevertheless ,  
  ; in fact ,  
  ; for example ,  
  ; futhermore ,  
  ; instead ,  


Independent clause  ,  and   independent clause  .
  , or    
  , but    
  , nor    
  , so    
  , for    
  , yet    

Although dependent clause , independent clause .

Independent clause    although  dependent clause 
after    though  where
before    that  wherever
during    so that  what
while    in order that  whatever
once   provided that  why
as    till  how
as if   until who
as long as    unless   whom
if  whereas  whose
whether  when  which
since    whenever  what
because although  how

Independent clause   ,   nonessential information , clause .
  , a city that moves to many rhythms  ,    
  , I believe  ,    
  ,  on the other hand  ,    
  , however  ,    

Independent     essential information     clause   .
The class    that I failed     was difficult.  
The woman     who had diabetes     was frequently thirsty.  



Independent Clause , afterthought .
He observed the molecular changes carefully   the way he observed  

Independent clause  :  word, word, word  . 
    phrase, phrase, phrase  
    clause, clause, clause