Punctuation Pattern Sheet

A clause is a group of related words that has a subject and a verb.  Clauses can be independent or dependent. 

·        An independent clause can stand alone as a complete sentence.

·        e.g. The Astronomy Club scheduled meetings at an isolated hilltop observatory.

·        A dependent (or subordinate) clause is a group of words that cannot stand alone as a sentence, even though it contains a subject and a verb.

·        e.g. Whenever it could, the Astronomy Club scheduled meetings at an isolated hilltop observatory.


Sentences typically obey the following format concerning clauses and punctuation:

Independent clause   .

 Independent clause   ;   independent clause   .

Independent clause ;   however     ,  independent clause
; therefore
; consequentlly ,
; likewise ,
; moreover ,
; then ,
; still ,
; also ,
; otherwise ,
; nevertheless ,
; in fact ,
; for example ,
; futhermore ,
; instead ,

Independent clause  ,  and     independent clause   .
, or
, but
, nor
, so
, for
, yet

Although    dependent clause    ,    independent clause    .

Independent clause          although  dependent clause   
after       though   where
before      that   wherever
during     so that    what
while     in order that   whatever
once    provided that   why
as        till        how
as if     until who
as long as     unless    whom
if    whereas  whose
whether    when     which
since      whenever   what
because although   how

Independent clause   ,    nonessential information , clause .
, a city that moves to many rhythms   ,
, I believe     ,
,   on the other hand  ,
, however   ,

Independent     essential information     clause   .
The class   that I failed       was difficult.
The woman    who had diabetes     was frequently thirsty.

Independent Clause , afterthought .
He observed the molecular changes carefully the way he observed

Independent clause   :  word, word, word  . 
phrase, phrase, phrase
clause, clause, clause