Accounting

Major

The Accounting Program at Gustavus Adolphus College is committed to providing a quality accounting education in contemporary subject matters and to supporting the student’s technical accounting coursework with a broad set of skills, knowledge and experiences in the liberal arts tradition.

We strive to prepare students to face challenges of a global business environment and to become active and engaged citizens who are able to apply accounting and business knowledge for the betterment of their communities. 


Why study accounting at a liberal arts college?

Employers today demand the communication skills, critical thinking skills, and other core competencies developed in a liberal arts college curriculum.


Why Gustavus?

1. Our program, with the use of January term and for-credit internships allows many students to reach the credit hour requirement for the CPA exam in four years, rather than five years, as is the case in accounting programs at other colleges.

2. With proper planning, many students are able to experience paid internships during their final semester while still graduating in four years. 

3. All students have access to the services of the Gustavus Career Development Center, where students can obtain career interest guidance, resume assistance, interview skills training, and access to the Center’s robust listing of internship and job placement opportunities.

4. Students may join the Gustavus Mentoring Program that connects students on campus with members of the Gustavus alumni community.

5. All faculty teaching accounting courses at Gustavus are Certified Public Accountants who have significant public accounting experience and/or industry experience

Developed Skills and Preparedness

Prerequisite

E/M-108 (Principles of Microeconomics) is a prerequisite for further work in the department unless the student receives approval of an alternate from the department chairperson.

Accounting Majors

This section lists the requirements of the Accounting majors. A grade of C- or higher is required for each course counted toward the major and a departmental GPA of 2.33 or higher is required for all departmental courses counted toward the majors. January Interim courses are not counted toward any major in the department. The specific requirements are as follows:

Required courses for both the Accounting and Public Accounting Majors:

  1. Mathematics Requirements:
    1. MCS-142 Introduction to Statistical Methods
    2. E/M-150 Applied Business Analytics
  2. Required Departmental Core Courses
    1. E/M-110 Financial Accounting
    2. E/M-108 Principles of Microeconomics
    3. E/M-109 Principles of Macroeconomics

If possible, students should complete the Mathematics and Required Departmental Core Courses during their First Year. If not, these courses should be completed no later than the end of their Sophomore year. 

Students must complete the Departmental Core before enrolling in Level II 
or Level III courses in the Economics and Management Department. Students must complete the Departmental Mathematics requirement before enrolling
in Level III courses. Non-majors who wish to take Level II or III courses without having completed the above prerequisites may enroll with the permission of the instructor.

B. Accounting Major

This is a good program for those who do not plan to become Certified Public Accountants (CPAs) and those who plan to complete an MBA before getting a CPA license. Students completing this program are prepared for a variety of entry-level positions in public accounting, private industry, or government. Those who complete this major may sit for the CPA exam in Minnesota, but must take additional courses to receive a license from the Minnesota Board of Accountancy.

The Accounting with Finance concentration is a good program for those who plan to pursue careers in corporate accounting or corporate finance. Through the Finance Concentration, students will acquire knowledge about how firms make financial decisions and how these decisions affect individual organizations and society as a whole.

1. Accounting Major

  1. Accounting requirements (all six are required):
    1. E/M-230 Managerial Accounting
    2. E/M-231 Intermediate Accounting
    3. E/M-232 Intermediate Accounting II
    4. E/M-240 Cost Accounting
    5. E/M-330 Auditing
    6. E/M-340 Federal Taxation
  2. Accounting Electives: One course credit from the following.
    1. E/M-241 Accounting Information Systems, or
    2. E/M-339 Advanced Accounting
  3. Management Requirements
    1. E/M-265 Business Law

 Plus two courses from the following list.

    1. E/M-251 Ethics in Business and Economics
    2. E/M-260 Marketing
    3. E/M-261 Organizational Behavior and Management
    4. E/M-270 Business Finance
    5. E/M-350 Human Resource Management
    6. E/M-351 Globalization and International Organizations
    7. E/M-353 Operations Management
    8. E/M-360 Managerial Economics
    9. E/M-370 Managerial Finance
    10. E/M-371 Investments

 2. Accounting with Finance Concentration

  1. Accounting requirements: E/M-230, E/M-231.
  2. Accounting electives: Two courses from E/M-232, E/M-240 and E/M-340
  3. Management requirement: E/M-265.
  4. Finance requirements: E/M-270, E/M-370, E/M-371.

 3. Economics electives: Two courses from E/M-360, E/M-384 International Trade and Finance, E/M-385 Public Finance or approved E/M-244/344 Special Topics

C. Public Accounting Major

This program is designed for students who want to complete the education requirements for CPA licensure in Minnesota prior to graduating from Gustavus. Students should be aware that other states may have different requirements for licensure. Students who wish to obtain a certificate in a state other than Minnesota should contact the Board of Accountancy in that state as soon as possible and work with their advisor to take courses that meet these requirements. Note: Completion of all requirements for the Public Accounting major may take more than eight semesters of study. However, with careful planning, and the use of for-credit internships enable most students to complete the Public Accounting major in 8 semesters.

  1. Accounting requirements (all eight are required):
    1. E/M-230 Managerial Accounting
    2. E/M-231 Intermediate Accounting I
    3. E/M-232 Intermediate Accounting II
    4. E/M-240 Cost Accounting
    5. EM 241 Accounting Information Systems
    6. E/M-330 Auditing
    7. E/M-339 Advanced Accounting
    8. E/M-340 Federal Taxation
  2. Management Requirements
    1. E/M-265 Business Law 

 Plus two courses from the following list.

  1. E/M-251 Ethics in Business and Economics
  2. E/M-260 Marketing
  3. E/M-261 Organizational Behavior and Management
  4. E/M-270 Business Finance
  5. E/M-350 Human Resource Management
  6. E/M-351 Globalization and International Organizations
  7. E/M-353 Operations Management
  8. E/M-360 Managerial Economics
  9. E/M-370 Managerial Finance
  10. E/M-371 Investments

 3. Complete a total of 37.5 courses, no more than .5 course of Physical Education activities or more than 4 courses of career exploration/ internship. Note that Public Accounting majors are able to count up to four J-term courses towards graduation requirements while Accounting majors can count two J-term courses towards graduation requirements. 

D. Accounting Minor

This program is a good choice for students who are pursuing a major outside of the Economics and Management Department and wish to increase their knowledge of how financial information is compiled, presented, and utilized for decision making.

The Accounting minor available with prior approval by the student’s departmental advisor and the department chair. A grade of C– or higher is required in each of the courses in the minor, along with an overall GPA of 2.333 for the minor. All Economics and Management courses must be taken at Gustavus to apply toward this minor. 

Required Courses: E/M-125 or MCS-121, E/M-108 or E/M-109, E/M-110, E/M-230, E/M-231, and E/M-232 or E/M-240.

Mathematics Courses

MCS 142 Introduction to Statistical Methods (1 course) Gathering, organizing, and describing data, probability, random variables, sampling distributions, estimation, hypothesis testing, linear regression, and analysis of variance. Treatment is more mathematical than MCS-140, but the emphasis is still on applications. Introduction to the use of computerized statistical packages. Students who plan on professional school (e.g., medical, physical therapy) should take MCS-142, not MCS-140. Students who have already taken a statistics course (MCS-140, E/M-125, PSY-224, HES-220, or have received credit from an AP Stats course) may not earn credit for MCS-142. QUANT, Fall and Spring semesters.

Economics and Management Courses

Economics and Management Course Numbers: The Department offers courses in three major disciplines—Accounting, Economics, and Management. To avoid confusion, we have assigned the following blocks of numbers to each discipline:
  1. E/M-100s, 110s, and 120s—Departmental Core Courses
  2. E/M-230s, 240s, 330s, and 340s—Accounting
  3. E/M-250s, 260s, 350s, and 360s—Management
  4. E/M-270s, 280s, 370s and 380s—Economics

105 Personal Finance (1 course) This course will examine various aspects of personal finance including consumer strategies, risk management, investments, saving for retirement, taxes, renting vs. buying a home or car, financial management and budgeting for the individual student while at college and after graduation. WELBG, Fall and Spring Semesters.

108 Principles of Microeconomics (1 course) Microeconomics looks at the economy as a whole, microeconomics examines the actions of the smaller components that make up the macro economy: individuals, households, businesses, unions, and governmental units. Most attention is given to the decisions facing a typical firm, and how those decisions will impact variables like price, output, and profit. Specific topics include demand theory, elasticity, production and cost, market structure, factor markets, international trade, and the role of government. HBSI Fall and Spring semesters.

109 Principles of Macroeconomics (1 course) A continuation of E/M-108. Whereas micro- economics examines individual markets, households or business organizations, macroeconomics looks at the economy as a whole. A study of the performance of the American economy including an understanding of basic economic theories, economic institutions, and the history of the discipline of economics. Topics include introductory supply and demand analysis, national income determination, the money and banking system, monetary and fiscal policy, and the application of economic principles to the problems of achieving full employment, price stability, economic growth, and a favorable balance of payments. Some study of economic development and the impacts of globalization. Prerequisite: E/M-108. Fall and Spring semesters.

110 Financial Accounting (1 course) This course introduces the measurement system used by entities to inform interested parties about their economic activity. The course provides a general overview of the quantitative and qualitative components of accounting information and also focuses on developing the basic reasoning skills needed to interpret an entity’s financial reports. This course, which is part of the departmental core, emphasizes a user perspective. Fall and Spring semesters.

125 Statistics for Economics and Management (1 course) The course emphasizes the application of statistical methods to economic, management, and accounting problems. In the course, students will develop their skills using current computer software and internet applications. The topics include presentation of data, measures of central tendency and dispersion, probability and probability distributions, sampling methods and distributions, confidence intervals, hypothesis testing, correlation analysis, simple linear regression, time series analysis, and decision making under conditions of uncertainty. Credit cannot be earned for this course if another course in statistics has been completed. Prerequisite: higher algebra. Fall and Spring semesters.

150 Applied Business Analytics (1 course) This course will prepare students in Management and Accounting to use data, statistical analysis, quantitative methods, and computer-based models to uncover insights into business operations in order to make better, fact-based decisions and to find hidden value in an organization’s data. The course will utilize a “hands-on” approach to cover topics such as optimization, forecasting, and simulation as well as machine learning, clustering and network analysis. Prerequisite: MCS-142, Fall and Spring semesters.

160 Introduction to Management (1 course) This course provides students an introduction to management and the world of work. The course will focus on business systems, workforce demographics, social responsibility, business ethics, forms of business organizations, entrepreneurship, small business and franchise systems, management processes, human resource management, marketing management, business finance, business decision-making, MIS and quantitative tools used in business, international business and the future dimensions of business opportunities in a global economy. In addition, this course allows students to discuss business ethical issues as well as explore opportunities and challenges of starting a new business. Fall and Spring semesters.

230 Managerial Accounting (1 course) This course provides a basic foundation for those individuals who use accounting information to perform the management functions of planning, decision-making, and controlling. Students learn to use qualitative information, budgeting, and forecasting techniques for planning to meet short-term and long-term objectives. Decision-making tools emphasize the choice, interpretation, and use of relevant data for pricing, product mix, and process decisions. A third component is an understanding of the internal control system used by an entity. Prerequisites: E/M-108, and E/M-110. Fall and Spring semesters.

231 Intermediate Accounting I (1 course) A detailed investigation of current financial accounting practice and related theory. The course emphasizes the methods, principles, and standards established by various accounting rule-making bodies and their official pronouncements. Special topics from current accounting literature will be assigned to update text material. This course develops basic theory and its application to assets and current liabilities. Prerequisite: E/M-108, E/M-109, and E/M-110. Fall semester.

232 Intermediate Accounting II (1 course) Continuation of E/M-231. This course covers long-term debt and stockholders’ equity issues. Long-term debt issues include accounting for bond financing, capitalized leases, and deferred income taxes. Stockholder equity issues include analysis of earning per share and income measurement problems. Prerequisite: E/M-108, E/M-109, E/M-110, and E/M-231. Spring semester.

240 Cost Accounting (1 course) A detailed investigation of the methodology and systems to accumulate and use cost and management data in product costing, inventory valuation, and income determination and in planning, decision-making, and control activities. The course emphasizes the role of the cost accountant and the accounting information system in management decisions. The student will learn both traditional cost accumulation systems and new systems to support the needs of a changing economy. Prerequisites: E/M-108, E/M-109, E/M-110, E/M-125 or MCS-142, and E/M-230. Spring semester.

241 Accounting Information Systems (1 course) A study of the theory of accounting information systems and the design, installation, and operation of accounting information systems. Informational needs, internal control, and the behavioral effects of accounting information are stressed. Prerequisites: E/M-108, E/M-109, E/M-110, and E/M-230. Spring semester.

244, 344 Special Topics (1 course, 1 course) Special topics in Economics/Management studies. Content will vary from semester to semester. Courses will explore a topic or problem in depth and students will read, discuss, and write. More than one special topic may be taken. Offered occasionally.

260 Marketing (1 course) This course focuses on the process of planning and executing the conception, pricing, promotion, and distribution of ideas, goods, and services thereby creating an exchange that satisfy individual and organizational goals. Moving from a firm understanding of marketing basis—product, price, promotion, and place—this course then explores the changing dynamics surrounding exchanges. These changes are reflected in such issues as: bricks and mortar versus online retail, the changing role of market intermediaries, and evolving globalization of trade and exchanges. Prerequisites: E/M-108, E/M-109, and E/M-110. Fall and Spring semesters.

261 Organizational Behavior and Management (1 course) A study of organizational and management methodologies, practices, principles, and theory. An examination of organizational and management functions and structure in terms of the traditional, situational, and behavioral approaches. Prerequisites: E/M-108, E/M-109, and E/M-110. Fall and Spring semesters.

265 Business Law (1 course) A study of the principles of business law with particular emphasis on legal reasoning. Topics covered in the course include contracts, commercial law, business organization, and agency. Prerequisites: E/M-108, E/M-109, and E/M-110. Fall and Spring semesters.

267 Entrepreneurship (1 course) This course offers an introduction to entrepreneurship as a process of problem solving and value creation. Students will be introduced to the economic theory of entrepreneurship with a focus on the relationship between entrepreneurship and economic growth. Once familiar with the theory, students will work on developing their entrepreneurial ventures through an experiential learning experience. This process will start with learning strategies for opportunity recognition, followed by feasibility analysis, development of a business model, industry and competitor analysis, and will conclude with writing a business plan. By the end of the semester, students will have developed the foundation necessary for turning an idea into an entrepreneurial firm. Simultaneously, throughout the semester, students will study the characteristics of successful ventures through a combination of readings, class discussions, and interactions with invited entrepreneurs. Fall semester.

270 Business Finance (1 course) This course introduces students to the fundamentals of finance. The course provides an overview of financial ratio analysis, time value of money, cash flow and financial planning, risk and return, interest rate and bond valuation, and stock features and valuation. The student is then introduced to the management of corporate working capital, including current assets and current liabilities management. Prerequisites: E/M-108, E/M-109, E/M-110, and either E/M-125 or MCS-142. Fall and spring semesters.

273 History of Economic Thought (1 course) Growth and development of theories and doctrines of major economists with emphasis on the classical and neo-classical schools. Austrian school, and theories of Karl Marx, concluding with Keynesian aggregative economics and post-Keynesian concepts. Prerequisites: E/M-108, E/M-109, and E/M-110. WRITD, Fall semester, even years.

274 U.S. Economic History (1 course) Economic history examines historical questions through the application of economic theory. This class will focus on the role of markets, social institutions, and government in the development of the American economy. Topics include colonialism, slavery, industrialization, the economic effects of wars, and the Great Depression. Course work includes essay exams, a term paper, and other brief writing assignments. Prerequisites: E/M-108, E/M-109, and E/M-110. Fall semester.

276 Economic Development and World Resources (1 course) This course is a study of the factors influencing the economic modernization of less developed countries, including cultural, human, and natural factors involved in the appearance and disappearance of economic resources. Topics include economic growth and development, poverty and income distribution, food problems, population growth, environment and development, sustainable development, capital formation, investment allocation, structural transformation, planning, markets, the role of the state, privatization, Third World debt, development planning, macroeconomic stabilization policies, and the international economics of development. The effect of economic advancement on the rates of resource utilization and its implications for less-developed countries, more- developed countries, and world resources will be examined. This course counts toward the Peace, Justice, and Conflict Studies major/minor. Prerequisites: E/M-108, E/M-109, and E/M-110. Offered occasionally.

277 Health Economics (1 course) This course applies the economic way of thinking to the analysis of individual decision-making in regard to the consumption and provision of healthcare as well as to the organization and operation of the healthcare industry. Students learn to evaluate the performance of various healthcare systems by comparing the efficiency and effective- ness of the American healthcare system against other countries. Covered topics: the demand and supply of healthcare, the demand and supply of health insurance, incentives inherent in different organizational structures, the role of regulation, the history of health care provision. Prerequisite: E/M-108, E/M-109, and E/M-110. Spring semester, odd years .

281 Intermediate Microeconomics (1 course) An intermediate analytical approach to consumption, production, distribution, government regulation, and welfare economics. Students cannot receive credit for both E/M-360 and E/M-281. Prerequisites: E/M-108, E/M-109, E/M-110, E/M-125 or MCS-142, and MCS-121 or MCS-119. Spring semester.

282 Intermediate Macroeconomics (1 course) This course is an analytical and empirical approach to macroeconomics. Using current computer software and Web-based applications, students will explore the long-run determinants of economic growth, inflation, and unemployment for both developed and developing economies. The course also focuses on an analysis of short-run fluctuations in income, employment, and how government policies affect the stability of the economy, as well as the interdependence of the domestic and global economies. Prerequisites: E/M-108, E/M-109, E/M-110, E/M-125 or MCS-142, and MCS-121 or MCS-119. Fall and Spring semesters.

285 Economics of the Environment and World Resources (1 course) This course explores the economics of environmental protection and natural resource management. The first portion of the course introduces theoretical and measurement issues related to environmental policy. Topics in this phase include the problem of externalities, theories of regulation, methods of regulation, and cost-benefit analysis. The remainder of the course uses the tools of economics to analyze specific environmental and conservation issues. These issues include conservation of exhaustible resources, management of renewable resources, and sustainable development. Prerequisites: E/M-108, E/M-109, and E/M-110. WRITD, Spring semester.

286 Economics of Sports (1 course) Sports economics utilizes the tools of economic theory to study sports markets, but also uses sports to shed light on economic concepts that are less easy to observe in other sectors of the economy. For example, player statistics provide easily obtainable data on worker productivity that can be applied to labor market theory. Also, sports leagues are one of the few legal operating cartels in the U.S., allowing us to observe the effects of monopoly power. Topics covered in this class will include: demand for sports, teams and profit, labor markets and unions, league structure and competitive balance, public subsidies for stadiums, and amateur sports. Prerequisites: E/M-108, E/M-109, and E/M-110. Spring semester, odd years.

330 Auditing (1 course) This course introduces the student to auditing theory and practice. Topics include auditors’ professional responsibilities, auditors’ legal responsibility, evaluation of audit evidence, internal control evaluation, statistical sampling, and audit reports. The course includes exercises designed to introduce the student to real-life auditing decisions. Prerequisites: E/M-108, E/M-109, E/M-110, E/M-125 or MCS-142, MCS-121 or MCS-119, E/M-230, E/M-232, and computer competency. Fall semester.

339 Advanced Accounting (1 course) An analysis of accounting for corporations with multiple divisions or subsidiaries, including mergers, acquisitions, and the preparation of consolidated financial statements. It will also cover accounting and reporting for governmental and nonprofit entities as well as special topics in accounting. Prerequisite: E/M-108, E/M-109, E/M-110, E/M-125 or MCS-142, MCS-121 or MCS-119, and E/M-231, Fall semester.

340 Federal Taxation (1 course) Federal taxation from the point of view of the taxpayer, emphasizing federal income tax and including social security taxes, gift tax, estate tax, and analysis of practical problems. Prerequisite: E/M-108, E/M-109, E/M-110, E/M-125 or MCS-142, and MCS-121 or MCS-119. Fall semester.

350 Human Resource Management (1 course) This course reflects the growing recognition that employees are an organization’s most important resource and, as a consequence, management of those resources is an increasingly critical function. Specific responsibilities in that regard include: recruitment and selection, testing and assessment, training and development, affirmative action, compensation and benefits, discipline and discharge. In addition, the course explores the ever-changing legal and regulatory elements that influence human resource activities and decisions. Prerequisites: E/M-108, E/M-110, E/M-125 or MCS-142, E/M-150, and E/M-160. WRITD, Fall semester.

351 Global Business Environment (1 course) This course provides students with both an appreciation for and theoretical understanding of the influence of culture on the political and economic contexts that shape and define business practices in the world of global commerce as well as develop highly practical cross-cultural management and leadership skills for engaging the challenges of working, managing, communicating, and negotiating in this highly complex environment. Firm-level decisions in the face of global forces are further integrated with individual awareness in order to provide a framework for analyzing opportunities and risks in a global business environment and illustrate the reciprocal systematic influence of globalization on management, leadership, strategy, and organization performance. Prerequisite: E/M-108, E/M-110, E/M-150, E/M-160, and MCS-142, or permission of instructor. WRITD, Fall semester.

352 Ethics in Business (1 course) This course explores ethical issues and moral dilemmas in organizations and larger economic systems. Areas covered include personal values clarification, ethical decision-making processes, corporate social responsibility, employee rights and responsibilities, and ethical issues within globalized work environments. Contemporary moral philosophy models inform current organizational issues that managers will face and provide a compass by which to evaluate ethical dilemmas and formulate workable decisions. Students will gain an appreciation for individual morals as they interact with organizational contexts, and will learn processes by which they may resolve ethical dilemmas in organizational settings with integrity. Prerequisites: E/M-108, E/M-110, and E/M-160, WRITL, Fall semester.

353 Operations Management (1 course) This course explores the planning and control activities used by a firm to create goods or provide services to the customer. It begins with a description of the management process. The student is then introduced to some operational planning tools to include forecasting, production scheduling, and materials procurement planning. We conclude with a discussion of inventory management and production control systems. Additional topics include Total Quality Control, Just in Time manufacturing, and operations research. Prerequisites: E/M-108, E/M-110, E/M-125 or MCS-142, E/M-150 and E/M-160. Spring semester.

355 Marketing Research (1 course) This course explores the planning, collection, and analysis of data relevant to marketing decision making. The course centers around student teams working with a local or regional organization, assisting that organization explore pressing marketing issues or concerns. Via secondary or primary data sources, students are exposed to all elements of the marketing research process, ending with a report—with recommendations—to their client organization. Prerequisites: E/M-108, E/M-110, E/M-125 or MCS-142, E/M-150 and E/M-160. Spring semester.

356 Digital Marketing (1 course) Digital Marketing (i.e. website marketing, social media, email marketing, voice assistance, inbound marketing, search marketing and mobile marketing) digs deeper into the concepts introduced in E/M-260, Marketing. Key components will include consumer behavior, content creation, data analysis, marketing strategies and the ethical impact of data breaches, privacy and targeting content. The goal of digital marketing is to acquire and retain customer relationship through utilizing digital tools. Students will engage with outside businesses and non-profits to implement strategies. Prerequisites: E/M-108, E/M-110, E/M-125 or MCS-142, E/M-150 and E/M-160, Fall semester.

360 Managerial Economics (1 course) Managerial economics offers an intermediate-level microeconomic analysis of the decisions facing managers in both traditional businesses and not-for-profit organizations. Topics include basic optimization, demand analysis, production and cost, linear programming, pricing and output decisions, factor markets, risk analysis, and strategic behavior. Students cannot receive credit for both E/M-360 and E/M-281. Prerequisites: E/M-108, E/M-109, E/M-110, E/M-125 or MCS-142, and MCS-121 or MCS-119. Fall semester.

365 Strategic Management (1 course) An examination of current business problems for development of policy decisions utilizing case methodology. Students prepare oral and written analyses and solutions for cases drawing on previous courses, current literature, and field trip experiences with business leaders. Prerequisites: E/M-108, E/M-109, E/M-110, and E/M-125 or MCS-142; open to seniors in the E/M department. WRITD, Fall and Spring semesters.

366 Economics of Strategy (1 course) This course uses economic analysis to provide a framework for strategic decisions within organizations. In particular, we will explore the concept of firm boundaries, how to analyze markets and competitors, how firms position themselves within markets and change those positions over time, and how firms organize themselves internally to carry out their strategies. Prerequisites: E/M-108, E/M-109, E/M-110, E/M-125 or MCS-142, and MCS-121 or MCS-119. Spring semester.

367 Entrepreneurship II (1 course) It is likely that entrepreneurs are born, not made. For those who believe they have an entrepreneurial spirit, this course will examine the complex problems they will face in starting their own venture and enhance their skills at addressing problems such as: recognizing opportunity, organizational structure, staffing, finance, marketing, and operations. Each student will develop his/her own business plan for the launching and operation of a business, incorporating the principles from a text, a study of the literature, and consultations with experts. Prerequisites: E/M-267, Spring semester.

268, 368 Career Exploration, Internship (Course value to be determined) Off-campus employment experience related to the student’s major. See description of the Internship Program. Fall and Spring semesters and Summer.

369 Conflict Management (1 course) The ability to functionally resolve conflict has been consistently recognized as a key competency for effective leaders and as an essential life skill. This course enacts a relatively simple philosophy: the more we practice diagnosing difficult situations and resolving them in a safe, critically evaluative environment, the more effective we will be in any organizational setting. The main objectives for this course are to re-frame how we think about conflict by distinguishing between functional and dysfunctional conflict, and considering conflict as an opportunity for voice and innovation. The course focuses on engaging in conflict as a sign of care and investment in a relationship. Spring semester.

370 Managerial Finance (1 course) A study of the financial structure and problems of financing business enterprises, including financing of working capital, cash flow, capital budgeting, and monetary and capital markets. Students will develop a business plan and analyze its feasibility. Problem-solving is a major part of the class and students will work in small groups on assigned problems. Prerequisites: E/M-108, E/M-109, E/M-110, E/M-125 or MCS-142, MCS-121 or MCS-119, and E/M-270. Spring semester.

371 Investments (1 course) Examination of how financial instruments are valued and traded. Investment strategies, such as active versus passive investing and constructing efficient port- folios, are explored. Students will present investment recommendations to the class (generally individual stocks or mutual funds). Students are expected to use the Internet or other sources to conduct research. Prerequisites: E/M-108, E/M-109, E/M-110, E/M-125 or MCS-142, MCS-121 or MCS-119, and E/M-270. Fall semester.

382 Money and Banking (1 course) This is a macro-oriented class. This course studies the theoretical and practical aspects of financial markets, commercial banking, and central banking. Particularly, the course focuses on [1] the components of the financial system, [2] money and its components, [3] how the interest rates are determined and their behavior, [4] commercial and central banking, and [5] the impact of monetary policy on the domestic and international macro economies along with the latest developments in financial regulations. By the end of the semester, students will have a solid understanding of the role that money and banking plays in the real world and will be equipped with the tools to analyze related problems. Prerequisites: E/M-108, E/M-109, E/M-110, E/M-125 or MCS-142, and MCS-119 or MCS-121. WRITD, Spring semester.

384 International Trade and Finance (1 course) A study of the fundamentals of international trade and finance. Topics include theory of international trade; trade policy and protectionism; regional trade agreements; international factory movements and multinational enterprises; foreign exchange markets; balance of payment; the international monetary system; international finance; banking, risk, and the world debt; the World Trade Organization; and macroeconomic policy in an open economy. Emphasis will be on understanding the impacts of globalization and policies in a global community. Prerequisites: E/M-108, E/M-109, E/M-110, E/M-125 or MCS-142, and MCS-119 or MCS-121. WRITD, Spring semester.

385 Public Finance (1 course) Theory, character, and trends in public expenditures, revenues, and debt management of governments, local, state, and national. Prerequisites: E/M-108, E/M-109, E/M-110, E/M-125 or MCS-142, and MCS-121 or MCS-119. WRITD, Fall semester, odd years.

386 Government and Business (1 course) This course examines the interaction of government and business in a market economy. Students will apply economic theory to an analysis of the legal and institutional aspects of government regulation. Topics include: antitrust law (mergers, price-fixing, monopolization, etc.); economic regulation and deregulation in markets for energy, transportation, and telecommunications; and social regulation in the areas of environmental protection, occupational safety and health, and consumer protection. Prerequisites: E/M-108, E/M-109, E/M-110, E/M-125 or MCS-142, and MCS-121 or MCS-119. Fall semester.

387 Labor Economics (1 course) This course examines the many dimensions of labor markets, from both the demand and supply sides. The emphasis is primarily from a microeconomic perspective, with a focus on policy issues. Specific topics include: labor supply and demand, both in aggregate and at the firm or individual levels; education and training policies; poverty and welfare policies; discrimination; unions and collective bargaining; labor history and labor law; and contemporary policy issues. Prerequisites: E/M-108, E/M-109, E/M-110, E/M-125 or MCS-142, and MCS-121 or MCS-119. WRITD, Spring semester, odd years.

388 Econometrics (1 course) This course studies the theory of economic model building. Special emphasis is given to problems of time series and cross sectional data, qualitative variables, and estimation of cost function and of simultaneous equation macro econometric models. Prerequisites: E/M-108, E/M-109, E/M-110, E/M-125 or MCS-142, and MCS-121 or MCS-119. Fall and Spring semesters.

291, 391 Independent Study (Course value to be determined) This permits wide latitude for well-qualified students to do supervised, individual study and/or research in a field of special interest. Open only to students majoring in the department and with permission of the department. Fall and Spring semesters and Summer.