Chuck Niederriter, Chair
Jonathan Skovholt (advisor: Tom Huber)
As long as organs have been around, their inner workings have hardly been
studied, for instance the read-resonator coupling. The read-resonator
coupling was observed by varying the air pressure in a vacuum system, lowering
the affect of the resonator in the system. A computer controlled
wave driver or speaker drove the read while measurements of its frequency were
performed with a lockin amplifier and optical positioning system.
Preliminary results will be presented.
Jason Haaheim (advisor: Chuck Niderriter (physics), Mark Kruger (psychology), Mark Lammers (music)) 1:45 p.m.
Studies of musical technique require accurate measurement of motion in terms of distance, acceleration, and velocity. Ultrasonic rangers have proven useful tools for these measurements. Our experiments are part of a long term study to compare the physical techniques of trombone players from neophyte to professional. In this paper, we will describe a new strategy for using an ultrasonic ranger to measure trombone slide motion during musical performance.
Amy (Iverson) Horn (advisor: James Welsh) 2:00 p.m.
The Marble Mountain terrane, which is situated within the Klamath Mountains
of northern California, is considered an ophiolitic tectonic melange and
consists of metasedimentary, metavolcanic, and metamorphosed ultramafic rocks.
The ultramafic rocks in the terrane are intruded by several mafic dikes.
Where the ultramafic and mafic rocks come into contact, a reaction occurs
between them. This research describes the mineralogical zonation through
the contact area, from the ultramafic to mafic rock body.
Determination of Photon Transport Mean Free Path Length by Total Transmission Measurement.
Jonathan Skovholt (advisor: Paul Saulnier) 2:15 p.m.
The transport mean free path length, l*, can be obtained by recording the
total transmitted intensity as a function of sample thickness. We have
conducted measurements on several sphere sizes utilizing an integrating sphere.
Additionally we have developed a model to apply to the data. Preliminary
results will be presented.
Concurrent paper session 1B: Nobel Hall, Room 305, 1:30-3:00 p.m.
Cindy Johnson-Groh, Chair
Evaluating the Impact of Source Credibility on Eyewitness Memory
Michael Henderson (advisor: Jennifer Ackil) 1:30 p.m.
In an attempt to further evaluate the impact of the forced confabulation
paradigm, this study was designed to determine what impact providing a warning
that calls into question an interviewer's credibility would have on the individual's
memory for false-items they had confabulated. While the primary aim
of the study was to evaluate the impact of source credibility on the
confabulated false-event items, it also looked at how a warning impacts
participant's confidence and true-event memory.
Relationships Between Leaf Scars and Roots in Genus Botrychium (moonworts)
Christopher Vaubel, Kristen Larson, Lisa Barajas, Marie Desaulniers (advisor: Cindy Johnson-Groh) 1:45 p.m.
Botrychium, a genus of ferns, annually produce a single aboveground
leaf. This leaf grows from the top of a vertical rhizome and following senescence
leaves a scar. Roots are produced between scars. Botrychium reportedly
produce one root and one leaf per year. Roots and leaf scars of B. ascendens,
B. lanceolatum, B. tunux, and B. yaaxodakeit were examined.
We discovered an average of 2.3 roots per interval, therefore a 2.3:1 ratio
of roots to leaf scars.
A Morphological Investigation of Botrychuim Polyploids
Louisa Kempema and Lisa Smart (advisor: Cindy Johnson-Groh) 2:00 p.m.
The genus Botrychium contains eleven diploid, thirteen tetraploid,
and one hexaploid species. We investigated whether Botrychium polyploids
are intermediate in morphological characters between parents or if they express
hybrid vigor by comparing diploid parent morphology to tetraploid morphology.
Metamorph was used to make these comparisons. Botrychium ascendens
exhibits hybrid vigor, whereas Botrychium echo, Botrychuim gallicomontanum,
and Botrychium pinnatum show morphological traits intermediate between
their respective parents in the morphological traits measured.
Teenage Employment and Minimum Wage Effects
Jake Svard (advisor: Larry Wohl) 2:15 p.m.
This paper examines the human capital teens gain as they choose to seek job
training, education and both.
Teens can gain future earning power through either choice, but education
brings a much higher return than job training. The minimum wage affects the choices teens make, and to a
large extent their future earnings potential. In the existing system drastic changes occur every time the
minimum is raised due to declining real value between changes. If the minimum wage were tied to the
cost of living index and raised annually, both teens and employers of teens
could make much better decisions about working.
The Economic Value of Life
Rob Glover (advisor: Larry Wohl) 2:30 p.m.
In cases involving injury or wrongful death, courts must decide on
compensatory values for the victims.
How can we determine the value of life of an individual? I plan to
explore the ways in which a finite value is placed on life by an individual. Given that there is a finite value of
human life, I will examine the system used for estimating the statistical value
of life based on the probability of fatal injury.
Investigations of Nonlinear Ricatti Systems
Jon Miller (advisor: Paul Saulnier) 2:45 p.m.
Many nonlinear ordinary differential equations can be represented as Ricatti
systems. Solutions can be gained by decoupling equations in systems from
each other. The Theory of Resultants may be used to determine the
conditions for which decoupling is possible. Investigations into this
technique were begun for certain nonlinear ordinary differential equations.
Concurrent paper session 1C: Nobel Hall, Room 222, 2:30-3:15 p.m.
Bill Heidcamp, Chair
Investigation of Hyaluronic Acid Synthase Expression in Metastatic Melanoma
Tim Wilson (advisor: Bill Heidcamp) 2:30 p.m.
Regulation of CD44 function has been implicated in melanoma
metastasis. Hyaluronic Acid (HA), the chief ligand of CD44, is required
for cell motility, and contributes to the metastatic phenotype of melanoma
tumor cell lines. In our study, we examined the mRNA expression of
Hyaluronic Acid Synthase genes (HAS1, HAS2, and HAS3) in highly and weakly
metastatic melanoma cell lines by relative RT-PCR, to determine the possible
contribution of HAS to the metastatic phenotype of these cell lines.
A Temporal Discrimination Model Derived from Electrophysiological Data of The Big Brown Bat.
Timothy M. Sonbuchner (advisor: Mike Ferragamo) 2:45 p.m.
We have used electrophysiological data from the inferior colliculus and the
auditory cortex to model the ability of the big brown bat, Eptesicus fuscus,
to discriminate temporal information.
The bat displays very accurate time discrimination but the individual
cells have fairly imprecise temporal tuning. Our model combines information from a large population
of cells and performs about two orders of magnitude more accurately than individual
The Effect of Has3 Over Expression on Mouse Melanoma Metastasis
Krista Wilhelmson (advisor: William Heidcamp) 3:00 p.m.
Hyaluronic Acid (HA) over expression has been implicated in melanoma
migration and metastasis. HA is synthesized by the hyaluronan synthases, Has1,
Has2, and Has3. A B16 mouse melanoma cell line was transfected with a clone of
the Has3 gene to over express Has3 and thus HA. Stably transfected cells were
injected subcutaneously into mice to compare the tumorogenicity and the
capacity to metastasize between the transfected cell line and a control cell
Concurrent paper session 1D: Nobel Hall, Room 201, 1:30-3:15 p.m.
Larry Potts, Chair
Contact Angle Measurements
Laura Owen (advisor: Larry Potts) 1:30 p.m.
To get a better understanding of the energetics that affect adsorption,
adhesion and surface tension, a series of contact angles can be taken and
studied. The contact angle is formed when the tension exhibited on a drop from
the liquid itself, the solid that it's on, and vapor that surrounds it are in
equilibrium. This contact angle is a benchmark for surface quality and can be
taken using many different methods.
Raman Spectroscopy of dimethylaminonitrostilbene (DMANS)
Yong Soo Hoo (advisor: Jonathan Smith) 1:45 p.m.
DMANS is investigated in various solvents to understand charge-transfer
processes as a function of solvent.
In this experiment, we use a pulsed Nd:YAG laser coupled to a tunable
dye laser to produce a range of wavelengths to study the system. Resonance Raman and fluorescence
spectrsocopy of DMANS and cis-stilbene allow investigation of the role of
different vibrational modes in the dynamics of DMANS.
Friedel-Crafts Alkylation of Acenapthene with Different Lewis Acids
Chris Krug (advisor: Brian O'Brien) 2:00 p.m.
The alkylation of acenapthene with tert-butyl chloride was carried
out using two different solvents, Freon 113 (CF2ClCFCl2)
and CS2, and several different Lewis acid catalysts, in an attempt
to alter the distribution of tert-butylated products.
The catalysts investigated include chlorides of Fe(III), Al(III), Ga(III),
Y(III), and In(III). Analysis
bygas chromatography yielded information about the product distribution from
each catalytic system. After
choosing the most selective system, we reacted the product with permanganate
to form the potassium carboxylate derived from oxidation of the benzylic carbons,
followed by reaction with HCl to form the carboxylic acid and/or anhydride. After further characterization of this
product, we plan to esterify the anhydride using hafnium(IV) chloride as the
Design and Construction of a Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer
Kelly Devine (advisor: Jonathan Smith) 2:15 p.m.
The goal of this investigation was to design and build a Time-of-Flight Mass
Spectrometer using the current vacuum chamber system in the chemistry Laser
laboratory. Mass Spectrometry is a way of characterizing molecules and
determining their molecular weight. In our design we used a novel method
of ionizing molecules for mass detection. This method,
Desorption-Ionization on Porous Silicon (DIOS), is based on Matrix Assisted
Laser Desorption/Ionization (MALDI), and permits us to examine molecules
without a typical matrix and without having to use laser wavelengths specific
to a particular molecule. This technique also allows us to examine large mass
molecules such as lysozyme which is difficult to get into the gas phase.
Synthesis of Primary Alkylphosphines by a Phospha-Gabriel Route
Philip Sass (advisor: Brian O'Brien) 2:30 p.m.
The classic Gabriel synthesis of primary amines through alkylation of potassium
phthalimide, followed by cleavage with hydrazine, has long been known as the
preferred method for preparation of primary amines from alkyl halides. Here
we describe a phosphorus analog of the Gabriel synthesis. Alkylphthaloylphosphines
[1,2-C6H4 (CO)2P-R] or bisphthaloylphosphinoalkanes [C6H4(CO)2P-(CH2)n-P(CO)2C6H4]
are readily prepared by reaction of cesium phthaloylphosphide [Cs+1,2-C6H4(CO)2P-]
with alkyl halides. Cleavage of the phthaloylphosphines by phenylhydrazine
(or hydrazine) produces N-phenylphthalhydrazide (or phthalhydrazide) and the
corresponding primary alkylphosphine. Spectroscopic and chemical characterization
of the phthaloylphosphines and primary alkylphosphines, as well as details
of the synthetic procedures, will be presented.
Exploration of the Reactivity of Buckminsterfullerene with Bis(trifluoromethyl)iodophosphine
John Zupancich (advisor: Brian O'Brien) 2:45 p.m.
An attempt has been made to react C60 with bis(trifluoromethyl)iodophosphine
through radical addition. A mixture of trifluoromethylated phosphines was
prepared by thermal reaction of trifluroiodomethane with phosphorus in an
autoclave, and the desired (CF3)2PI was isolated through
vacuum line fractionation. The fullerene was reacted with an excess
of (CF3)2PI in CS2 solvent under photolytic
conditions. Preliminary analysis of the products by 19F, 31P,
and 13C NMR will be discussed
The Chemisorption of Poly(N,N-bis-octadecylacrylamide) on an Aluminum Oxide Surface
Philip Sass (advisor: Larry Potts) 3:00 p.m.
We have found that poly(N-N-bis-octadecylacrylamide) readily chemisorbs from
chloroform solutions onto amorphous aluminum oxide surfaces. We will
present evidence from transmission and p-polarized reflectance infrared spectroscopy
(FTIR) studies and photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) that indicates that hydrolysis
of polymer amide side chains occur at the solution-metal oxide interface,
with the resulting acid-base chemisorption of acrylate pendant groups, formation
of an adherent plastic layer, and loss of octadecylamine to solution.
The plastic layer survives several washings with clean chloroform, as well
as washings with deionized water. Considerable roughening of the shiny
metallic aluminum surface occurs, along with mobilization of aluminum oxide
and hydroxide into the plastic coating.
Poster Session Nobel Hall Lobby 3:15-4:00 p.m.
Jonathan Smith, Chair
Synthesis of Anapear (methyl octa-1,4-dienoate)
Kyle Allen (advisor: Gretchen Hofmeister and Brian A. O'Brien)
Aliphatic esters have long been associated with fruity odors. We attempted to synthesize a compound
popular in modern perfumery using the ortho ester Claisen rearrangment. The synthesis is presented here along
with an in-depth NMR study of the purified product.
A study of the charge transfer state of DMABN
Beau Barker (advisor: Jonathan Smith)
The compound under investigation in this study is dimethylaminobenzonitrile
(DMABN). It is known that DMABN has a charge transfer state, but it is not
clear as to how DMABN achieves this state. It is thought that DMABN goes into
its charged transfer state when the amino group on the bottom of the compound
twists out of plane and loses its alignment with the other parts of the Pi
electronic structure. DMABN may become encapsulated in the constrained cavity of
beta-cycodextrin. Because of this, it makes it harder for DMABN to go into the
charge transfer state by twisting its amino group. The ground, electronically
excited, and the charge transfer state can be studied using fluorescence and
Phototactic behaviors of the marine crustacean Mysidium gracile with respect to light quality
Andrew Hamp (advisor: Nancy Butler)
Light quality and intensity influence the behavior and distribution of many
planktonic organisms, including the mysid shrimp Mysidium gracile. Mysids form
aggregations during the day and disperse at night, suggesting that light may
play an important role in mediating swarm formation. Here we present the
results of a study investigating the phototactic response of Mysidium gracile
on an offshore coral reef in Discovery Bay, Jamaica.
Grass and forb diversity, percent cover and biomass trends in two restoration prairies
Nicole Barondeau, Leslie Brandt, Phil Graeve, Amber Krahmer, Ginger Lindgren, and Monica Paulson (advisor: Pamela Kittelson)
We measured grass and forb diversity in burned, mowed and control plots at two restoration prairies.
Two species of grass dominated Arboretum plots whereas 7 species of grass were censused at Kasota.
Forb species richness, percent cover and biomass was significantly higher at Kasota Prairie than the Arboretum.
At both sites, burned and mowed treatments resulted in greater forb species richness and percent cover than control treatments,
but treatments did not significantly influence biomass.
Synthesis of Undecavertol
Keely Johnson (advisor: Gretchen Hofmeister and Brian A. O'Brien)
Undecavertol, a violet, leafy-smelling alcohol used in the
perfume industry, was synthesized under anhydrous conditions from pentylmagnesium
bromide and 2-pentene-2-ol. The final product was analyzed with 1HNMR,
HETCOR, COSY, and 13CNMR, leading to the conclusion that Undecavertol
has a trans formation around its double bond.
Inhibition of Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Release by Phenytoin
Andy Dufresne (advisor: John Lammert)
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease characterized by chronic inflammation of joints leading to degradation and resorption of cartilage and bone. High levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-a) have been found in joint fluid of RA patients and implicated in the disease process. The anti-convulsant drug phenytoin has been shown to alleviate symptoms of RA, and is also known to cause alterations in the immune system. Macrophage-like cells from the murine cell line RAW 264.7 were treated in vitro with phenytoin and assayed for TNF-a release. Our data indicate reduction of TNF-a release in cells treated with phenytoin.
Phototacic Behavoirs of Daphnia and Calaniod Copepods to Various Light Wavelegnths
Mandy Ortenblad and Nadine Lysiak (advisor: Nancy Butler)
Phototaxis plays an important role in freshwater ecosystems by orienting animals towards food or away from prdators.
We investigated the phototactic response of Daphnia and calaniod copepods, both in the field and in situ.
While field mechanisms did suggest an effect of light qualit on plankton behavior, the results were not clear cut.
However, subsequent laboratory results indicated distinct
species specific responses to different wavelengths.
Phenytoin and regeneration in Hydra
Rachel Turzynski (advisor: John M. Lammert)
Several studies have confirmed the positive effect
of phenytoin (PHT) on the acceleration of wound healing.
PHT is typically used for the treatment of epileptic seizures.
Evidence of gum overgrowth as a side effect suggested a
potential wound healing feature of PHT. PHT was added
to partially dissected Hydra, an aquatic invertebrate,
to observe any increase in the rate of regeneration.
Our data indicate no increase in the rate of regeneration
associated with the addition of PHT to Hydra.
Session 2: 4:00-5:00pm
Concurrent paper session 2A: Olin Hall, Room 220, 4:00-4:30 p.m.
Keith Carlson, Chair
A Microstructure Analysis of Shear Zones near Granite Falls, MN
Ryan Erickson (advisor: Jim Welsh) 4:00 p.m.
A microscopic study was conducted on a series of brittle-ductile shear zones
that occur in Precambrian metagabbros near Granite Falls, MN. While the orientation of the shear
zones is known, the shear movement has not been previously determined. Orientated
samples were collected from the shear zone and the microstructures were
analyzed to determine the shear movement.
Preliminary conclusions indicate shear movement to be oblique-normal,
with a sinistral sense of strike slip.
A stratigraphic and Sedimentological Study of the Minnesota Valley Minerals Cretaceous Clay Mine near Courtland, Minnesota
Gregory D. Joslin (advisor: Keith J. Carlson) 4:15 p.m.
A stratigraphic and sedimentological study was conducted in the Minnesota
Valley Minerals (MVM) Cretaceous clay mine near Courtland, Minnesota. The eight
data sections described there were used to divide the Cretaceous strata into
three distinct units. These units
represent a discontinous sequence of deposition in which basal unit 1 represents
tidally influenced sedimentation.
Units 2 and 3 unconformably overlie unit 1 and represent fluvially
Sound Distribution Of An Organ Pipe
Concurrent paper session 2B: Nobel Hall, Room 305, 4:00-5:00 p.m.
Larry Wohl, Chair
An Analysis of Rising Wage Inequality
Erik Diekrager (advisor: Larry Wohl) 4:00 p.m.
The United States experienced a significant rise in wage inequality during
the 1980's. Institutional factors such as de-unionization and a stagnant
minimum wage accounted for part of the problem. In addition, globalization,
immigration, education, and technology also impacted the changing wage
structure. This paper will examine these causes, along with the social and
economic problems arising from wage inequality in the past two decades
The Future of Labor Unions
Jeremy Ahlgren (advisor: Larry Wohl) 4:15 p.m.
Historically unions have been an institution that helped to define America.
Since the mid 1950 s though, union membership has been on the decline. Now with
a seemingly anti-union White House and still declining membership rolls, unions
seem to be in trouble. Some insist that unions will survive and that union
membership will expand to new fields, such as medicine and computer work.
Something along those lines will have to happen, as the new trend toward global
markets expands and traditional union jobs become more and more scarce.
Unemployment in Less Developed Countries
Nana Benhene Prempeh (advisor: Larry Wohl) 4:30 p.m.
Employment or work provides an individual with a form of income that enables
him to partake in the most fundamental economic transactions of securing goods
and services needed to ensure a decent standard of living. Over the past
decades Less Developed Countries, particularly those of Sub-Saharan Africa,
have experienced unprecedented levels of unemployment in its many forms. There
are many factors in the underdeveloped economies of countries like Ghana,
Nigeria, Uganda and Kenya that perpetuate this spiraling of joblessness and
economic stagnation. These include the inability of certain government policies
to effectively invest in human capital, the absence of job opportunities and
the low levels of education and funding directed toward job training programs
that serve as long term investments for these countries. This paper seeks to look at these
problems in depth and to consider policies these countries might adopt in order
to improve the current trends of unemployment.
The Gorbachev Reforms and Labor Conditions in the Former Soviet Union
Veronique Gronhovd (advisor: Larry Wohl) 4:45 p.m.
My objective in presenting this paper will be to attempt to clarify
the reasoning behind the former Soviet Union deciding to institute the
Gorbachev Reforms and the resultant effects of these reforms on labor
conditions from a period between 1985-1991. Gorbachev delivered a report in
which he favored economic renewal of the country, greater independence of
enterprises, reduction of state order,and a democratic change in society.
Gorbachev influenced the labor system in terms of worker wages, the
participation in labor unions, and labor mobility in various industries
Concurrent paper session 2C: Nobel Hall, Room 222, 4:00-5:00 p.m.
Mike Ferragamo, Chair
Effects of Burn and Mow Treatments on Above-Ground Biomass and Nutrient Levels in Two Restored Tallgrass Prairies
Jim Eckberg (advisor: Pamela Kittelson) 4:00 p.m.
I measured aboveground biomass and soil nutrients at two prairie restoration
sites. Average grass biomass was significantly higher in the Arboretum (250g)
than Kasota plots (~100g). The production of forbs at Kasota was ten times
greater than Arboretum plots. Within Kasota, burn/mow treatments supported
twice the forb production than control plots. Phosphate, organic matter and potassium differed
significantly between sites, whereas nitrate and pH were similar. However,
treatments within each site had similar nutrient levels.
Domains, Conformations, and Choices in D-3-Phosphoglycerate Dehydrogenase
Don Berkholz (advisor: Ellis Bell) 4:15 p.m.
D-3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (PGDH) is a homotetrameric enzyme that
catalyzes the first reaction in the serine biosynthesis cycle. There are
three domains in each subunit, and the subunits are at an approximate 180° axis
of symmetry across the interfaces (Al-Rabiee Regina, Zhang Yueping, and Grant
Gregory A.  J. Biol. Chem. 271. 23235-23238). The aim was to
determine cofactor choice, conformational changes, serine inhibition, and
subunit interactions and their effect on the mechanisms of catalysis and
communication. Kinetics experiments suggest a conformational difference
between mammalian and prokaryotic PGDH. Computational analyses supported
allosteric regulation of flexible hinges between rigid domains (Al-Rabiee et
al.). Serine was found to inhibit denaturation by guanidine
hydrochloride, suggesting added structural stability.
Underground Distribution and Density of Botrychium campestre
Anna Felkey, Katie Phillippe, Amanda B. Young (advisor: Cindy Johnson-Groh) 4:30 p.m.
We studied the density and
distribution of gemmae, roots and gametophytes of B. campestre in one meter of
prairie sod. Soil was filtered through sieves with water to remove larger
roots. The sieved material was centrifuged in water and sucrose to
isolate living underground structures that were identified under then
microscope. We found 21 plants distributed randomly in
clusters. We isolated 456 gemmae and 34 gametophytes mostly
distributed near parent plants.
Inhibition of Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Release by Phenytoin
Andy Dufresne (advisor: John Lammert) 4:45 p.m.
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease characterized by chronic
inflammation of joints leading to degradation and resorption of cartilage and
bone. High levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha
(TNF-a) have been found in joint fluid of RA patients and implicated in the
disease process. The anti-convulsant drug phenytoin has been shown to
alleviate symptoms of RA, and is also known to cause alterations in the immune
system. Macrophage-like cells from the murine cell line RAW 264.7 were
treated in vitro with phenytoin and assayed for TNF-a
release. Our data indicate reduction of TNF-a release in cells treated