NameSynonymShort TitleDescriptionMeeting DaysStart TimeEnd TimeFacultyArea ApprovalsComments
ART-104-00142782Design in ArchitectureSPATIAL & CONCEPTUTAL DESIGN IN ARCHITECTURE. Structured to introduce students to design thinking and the design process, this course will be beneficial to students considering further education in design-related fields such as architecture, industrial design and graphic design, as well as those who are interested in broadening their approach to challenges within their own fields of study. Morning instruction will be followed by independent time in the studio where students will spend time analyzing and iteratively testing concepts for critique and evaluation. Sketching, drawing and physical modeling will be our methods of inquiry and communication. A final sustained exploration will culminate in students developing a proposal for a campus-sited student and public gathering space.M T W R F08:15AM09:45AM IEXGrading: ABCDF.
Course Fee: $100.
Also meets 6:30pm-7:45pm on TR.
Also meets in FAA 105.
ART-108-00143004Everything's a SourceEVERYTHING IS A SOURCE. This course will immerse students in a four week long experience designed to demonstrate that art is not separate from their lives, above them or only in museums. Students will use a variety of media to produce art, and their actions and subsequent art will culminate in a large visual/sensory notebook and a small zine. Through assignments and the daily practice of drawing/painting, looking, listening and recording the world around them students will be producing a large volume of work in a relaxed and welcoming way.M T W R F10:30AM01:30PMNevittIEXGrading: ABCDF.
Course Fee: $50.
BIO-108-00142832Neurobiology: EmotionsSHAKESPEARE ON MY MIND. Emotions have been extensively explored in classic literature. More recently, neurobiologists have become intrigued with how these emotions are generated in the brain. In class, we will review the current state of knowledge in the science of emotions. Through the study of Shakespeare's plays, we will gain understanding of how emotional themes develop and how students react to a play. Students will compile a portfolio from group discussions, writing scripts and acting out of scenes. The class will seek to model emotional responses given the scientific understanding and experiences gained to suggest ways to enhance or mitigate our responses. M T W R F12:30PM03:00PMQaziIEXGrading: ABCDF.
Meets at 12:00-3:00pm on Thursday.
Meets until 2:30pm on Friday.
BIO-131-00142806MN Aquatic StewardshipMINNESOTA AQUATIC LEADERSHIP. Do you enjoy fishing and the outdoors? Are you interested in biodiversity and ecosystem health? Come explore Minnesota's aquatic resources and become well-informed stewards of Minnesota's natural treasures. Classroom activities and lectures will examine such topics as aquatic insect and fish biology, lake and stream ecology, and management of aquatic resources in Minnesota. Students will develop a stewardship project, visit a fish hatchery, and have the opportunity to learn beginning fly-tying/casting techniques. A winter fly fishing day trip is planned. Grade assessment includes stewardship and creative stream ecology projects, student-lead debates, lab activities, lecture exam, case studies, readings, and class participation.M T W R F10:30AM12:30PMEliasIEXGrading: ABCDF.
Course Fee: $65.
Add'l. lab time will be required.
Lab meets in NHS 324.
CHE-204-00142807Fermented Food ScienceWILD CULTURES: THE SCIENCE OF FERMENTED FOODS. Fermentations transform simple ingredients into  complex food products that have unique flavor  profiles and potential health benefits. In this  course, students will learn how to make their own  starter cultures, how to ferment a variety of  different foods and beverages and will learn  about the science behind each fermentation.  Additionally, students will experience industrial  applications of fermentations through field-trips  to local companies that produce fermented  products that will provide a different  perspective on the process.M T W R F08:30AM11:30AMParejkoIEXGrading: Student Option.
Meeting time includes Daily Sabbath break.
Add'l. lab time will be required.
Lab meets in NHS 207.
CHE-215-00142804Chem Research MethodsRESEARCH METHODS IN ORGANIC RESEARCH.  An in depth research experience is often a critical motivating factor for students that ultimately choose a career path in the sciences. This course will provide students with opportunities to gain experience in developing and executing the synthesis of molecules as part of a medicinal chemistry project. Each student will gain experience with experimental design, multi-step synthesis, and structure determination. Students will also execute searches of the scientific literature, and present the results of their work both orally, and in writing.M T W R F09:00AM04:00PMBurIEXGrading: Pass/Fail.
Meets until 2:30pm on Fridays.
Mtg time includes Daily Sabbath & lunch breaks.
Lab meets in NHS 301.
CHE-215-00243066Chem Research MethodsRESEARCH METHODS IN CHEMISTRY. An in depth research experience is often a critical motivating factor for students that ultimately choose a career path in the sciences. This course will provide students with opportunities to gain experience in developing analytical methods, and applying them to solve real chemical, biological, materials, and environmental problems. Each student will gain experience with modern chemical instrumentation used for spectroscopy, chromatography, and/or mass spectrometry. Students will also execute searches of the scientific literature, and present the results of their work both orally, and in writing.M T W R F08:30AM04:00PMStollIEXGrading: Pass/Fail.
Permission Required.
Meets until 2:30pm on Fridays.
Meeting time includes Daily Sabbath & lunch breaks.
COM-205-00143010Fan CulturesFAN CULTURES & NEW MEDIA. Being a fan is not only an identity or an intense love towards a cultural text; rather, it is a rhetorical process of actively negotiating, reaffirming and communicating one's participation in a variety of social and cultural situations. This course will provide students with an opportunity to learn about rhetorical studies and communication technology through the lens of fan cultures. The discipline of Fan Studies, originally an interdisciplinary research program, has existed for almost thirty years, however, in our current digital age, there have been great strides in communication scholarship to study the impact that media and technology has on fandom. As a popular trend in communication and media studies, this course will allow students to foster their own critical eye towards fan cultures while applying the key concepts to their own lives through the lens of multiple different fandoms: cult television, sports, video games, comic books, etc.M T W R F10:30AM12:30PMAdolphsonIEXGrading: ABCDF.
COM-222-00143008Gonzo JournalismBUY THE TICKET, TAKE THE RIDE: HUNTER S. THOMPSON AND THE EMERGENCE OF GONZO JOURNALISM. In this reading intensive course, students will wrestle with the writings of Hunter S. Thompson. While 'Fear and Loathing in Las Vegas' remains his most popular novel, much of Thompson's work has relevance to our social milieu. We will read 'Hells Angels' and 'Fear and Loathing and the '72 Campaign Trail,' as well as magazine articles, short stories, and personal correspondences. Based in a deeper connection to the material, students will comprehend and critique Thompsons complicated worldview. Students will reflect on and apply Thompson's writing, including his blurring of the lines between objective journalism and his own personal form of "gonzo journalism," to our current socio-political situation.M T W R F10:30AM12:30PMAndersonIEXGrading: ABCDF.
CUR-220-00142809Musical UnderstandingThis course provides students with an understanding and appreciation of the nature and place of music in contemporary culture. Music is a rich source of diversity of cultural influences as well as musical periods, styles, and media. The composer's perspective, the performer's role and the listener's responsibility provide points of departure for considering the individual's contributions to music and communal reaction to differing types of music or musical developments. Students will be involved in activities such as listening to recorded performances of music, attending performances of music on and off campus, writing papers for class presentations, discussing special topics, and participating directly in musical performance.M T W R F10:30AM12:30PMKnoepfelIEXGrading: ABCDF.
Initially open only to students with
sophomore standing.
E/M-206-00142913Midwest EntrepreneursINNOVATION, NETWORKING & ENTREPRENEURSHIP SKILLS:  ALUMNI CONNECTIONS IN THE UPPER MIDWEST. This  January Interim course will help students gain  skills in innovation, entrepreneurship,  creativity, and networking with successful Gustie  alumni in the Upper Midwest region.  Co-facilitated by Marshall Lichty '99, this  course helps students learn how to be innovative  within many organizational contexts. This course  also offers several day trips and overnight trips  in our region to visit with alumni who open their  companies' doors for students, sharing what it  takes to be entrepreneurial in any organization,  and helping to build their Gustie network.  Coursework combines business research papers, the  Entrepreneurial Mindset Profile, site visit  analyses, presentation(s), course discussion  activities, and reflection work.M T W R F10:30AM01:00PMLund DeanIEXGrading: Student Option.
Course Fee: $390.
E/M-278-00142912Fin Statement AnalysisFINANCIAL STATEMENTS ANALYSIS. Financial analysis is the selection, evaluation and interpretation of financial data and other pertinent information to assist in evaluating the operating performance and financial condition of the company. The objective of this course is to  provide students with the theoretical and practical tools and methods to effectively navigate the complexity of financial and non-financial data, be able to draw inferences from past performance and to apply that information for future financial decision making. The course will combine both theoretical and practical applications of Financial Analysis. The course is designed to introduce Financial Statement Analysis topics tested on the CFA level I examination.M T W R F12:30PM02:30PMPietkaIEXGrading: ABCDF.
EDU-268-00143034Orientation to TeachingThis course is designed to help students assess their interests in teaching. The student spends one month working in an elementary or secondary school or other approved setting as a full-time teacher assistant. A journal, selected readings and on-line discussion provide opportunities for reflection during the experience in a school setting. Written assignments and attendance at a culminating retreat are required. Students attend an organizational meeting in the early fall to receive information regarding school placement options and course requirements. This course counts as one of a maximum of four internship credits allowed in the degree program.    IEX EXPGrading: Pass/Fail.
Course Fee: $30.
Permission Required.
EDU-395-00143065K-12 Directed TchngFourteen weeks of full-time supervised teaching divided between the elementary and secondary school. This course provides a wide experience in the planning and directing of learning activities in art, music, health, physical education, or foreign languages and is designed for persons who seek licensure in grades K-12.   PittonIEX EXPGrading: Pass/Fail.
EDU-396-00143064Middle Level Dir TchngMIDDLE LEVEL DIRECTED TEACHING. Four weeks of full-time supervised teaching at a cooperating middle school/junior high. This course provides a broad experience in the planning and directing of learning for middle level learners in the area of the student's endorsement.   PittonIEX EXPGrading: Pass/Fail.
ENG-104-00143061Fairy TalesFAIRY TALES: CLASSIC & CONTEMPORARY. This course will focus on the classic fairy tales of western culture and their modern and contemporary recreations/adaptations. We will first read the original tales closely paired with criticism and commentary on these tales. We will then read or view contemporary versions of the original tale and compare and contrast the two. Students will also imagine and craft their own original fairy tale as well as research and present on a contemporary tale of their choosing.M T W R F11:00AM01:00PMRasmussenIEXGrading: ABCDF.
ENG-140-00142816Horror FilmsThis course focuses on how representations of the "undead" have figured in Western culture in the past two centuries. We will cover both "high" and popular literature and a range of films from art cinema to exploitation films, horror to science fiction. Among the icons of these "undead" are Frankenstein's monster, the vampire, zombies and those who have met violent deaths, such as the "heroes" of the Nightmare on Elm Street and Candyman series. We will be concerned with how and why these figures haunt Western societies (especially the United States) and will read analyses ranging over aesthetic theories and sociological analyses.M T W R F11:30AM02:30PMCobbIEXGrading: ABCDF.
ENG-207-00142783Digital StorytellingDIGITAL STORYTELLING: INTERACTIVE FICTION, GAME THEORY, & STORYMAPS. Explore new ways of writing stories using digital forms like interactive websites, video games, and maps. In this course, we will read/experience exciting new story forms and ask big questions: What makes something a story? How are digital stories different from (or is similar to) "old-fashioned" ones like books or movies? What tech is available to tell stories in a digital format? We'll also practice writing using some of the technologies available, like Twine (http://twinery.org/ ) or StoryMap.js (https://storymap.knightlab.com/). To end the course, students will develop and write a digital project, such as a game or story website.M T W R F10:30AM12:30PMLawleyIEXGrading: Pass/Fail.
Initially open only to students with
sophomore standing.
ENV-225-00142833Intro Renewable EnergyINTRODUCTION TO RENEWABLE ENERGY. This course will explore the renewable energy technology and related topics in science and public policy. Field trips, laboratory exercises, problem solving (math at the high school algebra level) and lectures will cover a full range of renewable energy sources, including wind, solar and biomass, the rationale for their use, and the technology for taking advantage of these energy sources.M T W R F10:30AM12:30PMDontjeIEXGrading: Student Option.
Lab meets 1:30pm - 4:00pm on TR.
GEG-204-00143017Eco-Justice in MnWORKING FOR ECO-JUSTICE IN MINNESOTA. This course will introduce students to the world of environmental justice through a hands on approach of working with CEED (Center for Earth, Energy and Democracy) here in Minnesota. Students will gain the experience of working on projects related to climate resilience, pollution in vulnerable communities and energy issues. The goal of this course is to provide students a hands-on understanding of what it means to work in an eco-justice organization while intellectually developing your own ideas and understanding of eco-justice.M T W R F10:30AM12:30PMBinoyIEXGrading: ABCDF.
GEO-117-00143011Discovering AntarcticaDISCOVERING ANTARCTICA: SCIENCE AND EXPLORATION AT THE BOTTOM OF THE WORLD. Are you interested in how the highest, driest, and coldest continent on Earth formed? Are you curious about human impact in Antarctic? Do you want to learn about explorers that discovered Antarctica? If so, this course is for you! We will use data and current scientific research projects on Antarctica to investigate climate change, ozone depletion, glaciers, plate tectonics, penguin colonies, and neutrinos. We will also read and discuss articles and books on Antarctic explorers and the Antarctic treaty. Be ready to participate in class discussions, and make oral and poster presentations. Off-campus field trips on Thursdays are required.M W F10:30AM12:30PMMcFaddenIEXGrading: ABCDF.
Req'd. field trips on Thurs. at 9:00am - 4:00pm.
GER-120-00143042What's German/Germany?GERMANY: MORE THAN THE ALPS, BEER AND CASTLES.  Germany's people and culture are more diverse than the commonly held stereotype. Through a week's stay in each of three areas of Germany, Ostfriesland in northwestern Germany, Berlin in east central Germany, and Munich in southern Germany, students will increase their awareness of Germany's diversity, challenging the stereotype of Germans and the German culture. Through interaction with local people and visiting historical and cultural sites in these three geographic areas, students will learn about the political, economic, and social influences that shape Germany's cultural identity, and will attempt to answer the question "What is German?" Students will journal and write reflection papers to document their learning.M T W R F  BranstadIEXGrading: Pass/Fail.
TRAVEL COURSE-Permission Required.
Meets on campus Jan. 8-10 at 10:30am-12:00pm
and 1:00-3:00pm in CON 126.
GRE-100-00143062Anc Greek Lang & CultrAN INTRODUCTION TO ANCIENT GREEK LANGUAGE AND CULTURE. This course is an introduction to ancient Greek and prepares students to jump straight into second semester Greek (GRE-102) and fulfill the College's language requirement. Taking this course will also improve students' understanding of how language works, enhance English vocabulary (including technical vocabularies such as scientific and medical terms), introduce them to Greek culture, and lay the groundwork for going on to read great works of literature, from Homer's poems through Plato to the New Testament. There will be daily homework and quizzes, a weekly test, and a final exam. Homework help will be offered in the afternoons by the instructor and Greek tutors, and there will be extracurricular opportunities to appreciate Greek culture and cuisine.M T W R F09:00AM11:30AMBruceIEXGrading: ABCDF.
Meeting time includes Daily Sabbath break.
Language lab is available 1:00pm-4:00pm
on MTWR and 1:00pm-2:30pm on F in OM 205.
HES-102-00143023Begin TennisCourse objectives include developing basic tennis stroke skills, game skills, and gaining cognitive knowledge regarding tennis as a recreational lifetime activity.M W F08:30AM10:00AMCarlsonACTGrading: Pass/Fail.
Only open to students who have not completed
their ACT requirement.
HES-105-00143026BadmintonThis course is designed to introduce and enhance the skills of the game, including strategies, scoring, and shots.M W F10:30AM12:00PMKleinschrodtACTGrading: Pass/Fail.
Only open to students who have not completed
their ACT requirement.
HES-116-00143025Weight TrainingStudents are introduced to skills, techniques, muscle physiology, and safety. After learning how to set up a personalo strength training program, students are better able to set goals to improve and maintain lifetime activity. Both free weights and machines are used.M W F08:30AM10:00AMKleinschrodtACTGrading: Pass/Fail.
Only open to students who have not completed
their ACT requirement.
HES-122-00143029RelaxationThis course is designed to introduce and practice various ways to elicit the relaxation response. Students will assess personal stress levels and responses and participate in a variety of techniques to help them relax. Techniques such as progressive relaxation, autogenics, tai chi, yoga, massage and meditation will be covered in class.M W F10:30AM12:00PMOttoACTGrading: Pass/Fail.
Only open to students who have not completed
their ACT requirement.
HES-123-00143028YogaStudents will learn and practice a variety of Hatha Yoga postures followed by a short period of meditation. There are short written assignments about the underlying principles of yoga as a means to unite the mind, body and spiri. Also included is a short essay on yin and yang and yama and niyamas.M W F08:30AM10:00AMOttoACTGrading: Pass/Fail.
Only open to students who have not completed
their ACT requirement.
HES-127-00143027Pilates ConditioningThis course will offer a mixture of Pilates, yoga and calisthenics training.M W F12:30PM02:00PMMoreACTGrading: Pass/Fail.
Only open to students who have not completed
their ACT requirement.
HES-242-00143043Olympic Quest: AsiaASIAN OLYMPIC QUEST: UNDERSTANDING SPORT & LEISURE IN CHINA, SOUTH KOREA, AND JAPAN. Using a global, issues-oriented approach, Olympic Quest considers how sport, leisure, and the modern Olympic Games may inform the participant of societal and cultural themes and differences in Asia (China, South Korea, and Japan). Through daily fieldwork, excursions, interaction with guest speakers and guides, reflective journaling practices, course readings, participation in popular sports and leisure throughout the countries we are visiting in Asia, and instructor and student-led presentations, students will have the opportunity to examine the intersection of sport/leisure and Asian society and culture.   ReimannIEXGrading: Pass/Fail.
TRAVEL COURSE-Permission Required.
HES-318-00143024Sr January AT ClinicalJanuary Senior Athletic Training Clinical Lab This course provides athletic training students the opportunity to participate in clinical education, discuss evidence based practice, and become trained in the Graston Technique.M T W R F  Westby Grading: ABCDF.
Athletic Training majors only.
HIS-108-00143019Citizen ActivismCITIZEN ACTIVISM AND STATE GOVERNMENT IN THE AGE OF TRUMP. Students - as Citizen Activists - will engage on a political or social issue of importance to them, strategize how to influence public opinion and legislative or policy action, and implement that strategy in the public arena. Students will deepen their understanding of their issue, the multiple viewpoints, and the people affected. The course then connects students to the current framework of citizen activism in Minnesota that triangulates between advocacy groups and experts, traditional and social media, and local and state politics and legislation. Students will work creatively within this framework to effect desired change. Diversity of viewpoints is explicitly encouraged.M T W R F11:30AM02:30PMIckesIEX 
HIS-222-0014278421st Century StoriesSTORYTELLING IN THE 21ST CENTURY. How does someone choose one story out of a lifetime of stories? If I am helping someone tell their story, what are some of the ethics to keep in mind during the story-making process? What is the purpose of the story that I want to tell? In this course, students will explore these and other questions about identity and digital storytelling. Students will also learn to write and edit a personal narrative intended for a broader audience, acquire multimedia literacy, and learn basic video-editing skills to produce a short video that explores the story of a family member, friend, or acquaintance.M T W R F10:30AM12:30PMMarinariIEXGrading: ABCDF.
Initially open only to students with
sophomore standing.
HIS-229-00142795Witches 1400-1700WITCH HUNTING AND WITCH TRIALS, 1400-1700. The witch-hunts of early modern Europe and North America are historical puzzles. In spite of vast research, we cannot answer with certainty why they happened when and where they did, why certain people were the victims, or why they ended when they did. Through reading and discussing primary and secondary sources, we will explore these events and seek to understand them for ourselves. Using what they have learned, students will write and stage a witch trial (without the torture or execution) that might have happened for their final project. Grading is based on participation in discussions, regular informal writing (300-500 words each), one exam, and contribution to the final trial project.M T W R F12:30PM02:30PMCarlsonIEXGrading: ABCDF.
IDS-105-00142834The BluesThis course will follow the historical, social, cultural, and artistic development of the music called, The Blues. The Blues have influenced the course of contemporary music world-wide but still remains as a classical and indigenous musical form which sprung from a uniquely Black-American perspective. We will study the music and the political and social context in which it developed from its rural southern roots through its evolution into an urban, cosmopolitan and eventual global music.M T W R F12:30PM03:30PMWohlIEXGrading: ABCDF.
Meets until 2:30pm on Fridays.
JPN-145-00143044January in JapanJAPANESE LANGUAGE AND CULTURE STUDY IN TOKYO.  In this course, students will engage in intensive language and cultural immersion at Hosei University, located in the center of Tokyo. Students with various levels of Japanese language proficiency-from beginning (with no previous experience) to advanced-may participate in this course; each student will be placed in an appropriate level class at the university. The course also offers opportunities to visit various sites of historical and cultural significance in Tokyo and its surrounding areas. In addition to the assignments and examinations (written and oral) in the Japanese language course, students will engage in reflection on their intercultural experience via group discussions and essays.   SakuragiIEXGrading: ABCDF.
TRAVEL COURSE-Permission Required.
MCS-358-00142836Math Model BuildingMATHEMATICAL MODEL BUILDING. An introductory study of the formulation of mathematical models to represent, predict, and control real-world situations, especially in the social and biological sciences. The course will use ideas from calculus, linear algebra, and probability theory to describe processes that change in time in some regular manner, which may be deterministic or stochastic. Typical topics are Markov and Poisson processes, discrete and continuous equations of growth, and computer simulation. In addition, students will work on their own mathematical modeling projects.M T W R F10:30AM04:20PMLoFaroIEXGrading: ABCDF.
Open only to Juniors and Seniors.
Meets until 2:30pm on Fridays.
Meeting time includes lunch break.
Lab meets in OHS 326.
MLC-115-00142802Contemp Chinese FilmCONTEMPORARY CHINA THROUGH FILM. This course introduces to students contemporary Chinese society and culture through watching, discussing, and writing about major films from Mainland China, Hong Kong, and Taiwan. We will explore important social, political, and cultural issues and phenomena, such as Cultural Revolution, Women?s status, ethnic minorities, rural migrants, martial arts films, and popular culture. By the end of the course, students will reach a better understanding of the social, political, and cultural reality of contemporary China. They will also develop skills in analyzing films.M T W R F10:30AM12:30PMShanIEXGrading: ABCDF.
Meets until 1:30pm on Tuesday & Thursday.
MUS-105-00142831American Popular MusicAMERICAN POPULAR MUSIC, 1865-1980. This course  examines American popular music from various  historical, sociological and philosophical points  of view. Beginning in the 19th century, certain  elements unique to our country came together to  take classical music and folk music in new  directions. Among the music we consider will be  popular art music, jazz, folk, country and pop music up to about 1980. Students are responsible for one presentation on an artist or musical group of your choice. In addition to reading  assignments, there will be four exams. Come prepared to discuss and debate many aspects of our pop culture!M T W R F10:30AM12:30PMMooreIEXGrading: ABCDF.
MUS-165-00143045Orchestra:Sweden/NorwayGUSTAVUS WIND ORCHESTRA TOUR TO SWEDEN AND NORWAY. This is the international tour for the Gustavus Wind Orchestra to Sweden and Norway. The course will include musical rehearsals and performances, field work in each student's primary area of study as guided by faculty, group presentations, and in depth cultural study. This course is limited to students on the Gustavus Wind Orchestra international touring roster established in fall 2017 by audition. Participation is required for all rehearsals, sectionals, and companion course offerings.   MillerIEXGrading: ABCDF.
TRAVEL COURSE-Permission Required.
Meets on campus Jan. 8-19, 1018.
Rehearsal is 8:00am-3:00pm and 6:00-9:00pm
in FAM 106 and BRH.
Companion Course meets: 1:00-3:00pm in NHS AUD.
Meeting time includes 1-1/2 hr. lunch break.
Rehearsal breaks at 2:30-4:30pm on Fridays.
MUS-275-00142785Piano PedagogyCREATIVE PIANO TEACHING: PIANO PEDAGOGY FOR NEW TEACHERS. This course introduces college students to various methods of creative piano teaching. Students will survey piano method books, supplemental books, technique and theory books. In addition, they will focus on developing practical piano teaching skills. Students will visit and observe well-established piano studios in the region. Finally, students will have the practical experience of teaching piano to young children. These lessons will be videotaped and will be evaluated in their final presentations.  M T W R F12:30PM02:30PMOshima-RyanIEXGrading: ABCDF.
NDL-068-00143033Career Explor PreregistrationThis is a required preregistration for those students who intend to pursue a career exploration during January but have not finalized their placement at the time of registration. Only preregistered students will be eligible for the final registration in a career exploration.    IEXGrading: Pass/Fail.
Not open to First Year students.
NDL-104-00142803Army LeadershipFOUNDATIONS OF ARMY LEADERSHIP. There are many well-proven Army techniques for leadership, personal development, physical well-being, values, and ethics which can be used every day and which may be of interest to students, regardless of major. Others may be interested in this subject because of connections they have with friends or family in the military. This course is designed to introduce these ideas to those with little or no previous experience with the concepts of Army leadership and officership. In the classroom you will be exposed to the basics of the Army system and what it is like to be a U.S. Army officer. Students in the course will have required reading assignments and be expected to participate in classroom discussion and class activities. Every student will give an oral presentation, write a paper, keep daily logs, and take a weekly test.M T W R F10:30AM12:30PM IEXGrading: ABCDF.
NDL-108-00143063Bouncing ForwardBOUNCING FORWARD: RESILIENCY SKILLS FOR COLLEGE AND BEYOND. This course provides an introduction to the tools, concepts and principles of resilience offered by current research in the field of Positive Psychology and Mind-Body Medicine. This course is grounded in the Gustavus Well-being initiative, which identifies well-being as a choice to assume responsibility for the quality of one's life across multiple dimensions. We will be focusing on both the theory and practice of specific tools and strategies for increasing personal resilience and the overall well-being.M T W R F09:00AM12:30PMRusinkoIEXGrading: ABCDF.
Meeting time includes Daily Sabbath break.
Meets 9:00am - 10:00am on MTWR in FAC 223.
NDL-109-00142914Life TransitionsLIFE TRANSITIONS AND VOCATION. This course will help you research, discover and discern your future life course. Throughout the four week class, you will identify your strengths, values, personal work preferences and vocation. We will study the world's most pressing needs and how your gifts and skills can address these needs. We will study the vocations of others by meeting people in the area and through readings. Finally, you will write your vocational story, create a resume, LinkedIn Profile, Handshake Profile and practice interviewing so that you can go out and tell your unique story to the world.M T W R F12:30PM02:30PMTunheimIEXGrading: ABCDF.
NDL-111-00142786Classic Disney MoviesIn this course we will examine some of the most popular Disney films--from Snow White (1937), to Moana (2017). We will analyze these films in their historical and social contexts to interrogate their underlying assumptions, values, and concerns. In particular, we will examine how Disney movies and their writers, producers, and animators engage with themes of love, danger, and family as well as questions of gender, identity, and ethnicity. We will also analyze the relationship of Disney films to folktale and myth and reflect on the role that Disney films play in American consumerism and the mass production of childhood.M T W R F10:30AM12:30PMHongIEXGrading: Student Option.
Course Fee: $20.
NDL-114-00143012Contemplative Rel LifeCONTEMPLATIVE RELIGIOUS LIFESTYLES. Many world religions have traditions where spirituality is a full-time occupation. In this class students will choose a contemplative religious lifestyle from among a variety of traditions and observe some of their rules, restrictions and daily routines for the duration of the course. Each student will keep a journal of their experience. Class meetings will consist of group discussions about students' experiences, reading assignments and documentaries. Each student will give a presentation at the end of the course. The goal of this class is for students to learn about an unfamiliar religious lifestyle through attempting to experience it for themselves.M T W R F10:30AM12:30PM IEXGrading: ABCDF.
NDL-116-00142892Analyzing JapanUnderstanding another culture is a cumulative yet never-ending process, and especially if you are fascinated by or feel threatened by Japan, this course may be for you. For one month we will immerse ourselves in "things Japanese," as we explore the foundations of Japanese culture through an analysis of almost everything from history to sumo wrestling. Japanese language ability is not a prerequisite, although we will use a limited number of Japanese terms throughout the course to introduce cultural concepts.M T W R F10:30AM12:30PMLeitchIEXGrading: Student Option.
Course Fee: $20.
NDL-205-00142787Identity & the InternetThis course will explore the uses of self-representation on the Internet and will take a critical look at how information gathered through social platforms is used by individuals, groups, corporations, and the state. Among the questions we will consider are how we represent ourselves online, how the information we provide is used, how nationality, race, ethnicity, gender, and class intersect with social media, and how these media are used for self-expression, protest, marketing, and state control. Students will co-author and digitally publish an anthology of critical essays about social media platforms and our digital lives.M T W R F09:00AM12:30PMFisterIEXGrading: ABCDF.
Initially open only to students with
sophomore standing.
Meeting time includes Daily Sabbath break.
NDL-228-00143046Sport & Cultr in FranceThrough an array of learning opportunities, we will learn how sport in particular is a major defining factor in French history, society and culture. We will concentrate on soccer mainly as the dominant sport within the French culture, students will have opportunity to play against local soccer club teams. The influence of other sports will not be ignored such as Rugby Union and Formula One, visiting the Rugby heartland of Toulouse, and the track at Monaco. We will explore the influence of sport visiting professional sporting arena's, as well purely historically, politically, and culturally important sites within France, and it particular regions. Readings, presentations and group discussions will prepare us for the experiential parts of the course, and reflective journal writing will help us to learn what goes to make up modern-day France. Its culture, its language, the politics and the life, loves, and leisure pursuits that makes the French people unique. We will see how sport allows for diverse communities to come together, how it acts as a bond and allows understanding of formerly disparate groups.  By participating, by attending and visiting, and by reflection on engagement within various cultural, historical and important societal sites throughout France, students will explore the links that exist between sport, leisure and the major influences and aspects of the French life. Visiting with coaches, players, community leaders and others, and viewing a range of sporting events, will allow participants of the course to gain an appreciation for the dynamic interplay between French sport and leisure, history, politics and culture.   MiddletonIEXGrading: Student Option.
TRAVEL COURSE-Permission Required.
Meets on campus Jan. 8-19 at 9:30am-5:00pm
in LUN 208.
Meeting time includes Daily Sabbath & 2-1/2 hr.
lunch break.
Meets until 2:30pm on Fridays.
NDL-243-00143060ForensicsThis course focuses on the study and practice of intercollegiate speech and debate. Students will be expected to participate in public speaking events including persuasive speaking, extemporaneous speaking, informative speaking, impromptu speaking and debate. Students are also expected to participate in coaching sessions, peer critiques and on-campus forensics activities. In addition, students may be selected to represent the college at tournament competitions during weekends in January.M T W R F10:30AM12:30PMVoightIEXGrading: Pass/Fail.
NUR-305-00143013Childhood Social Dev.EARLY CHILDHOOD SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT. This course will dive into the cognitive, psychosocial and social development of children. Through field observations, small group activities and lecture, students will explore the complex nature of social development and experience the thrill of making discoveries based on their own field observation.M T W R F10:30AM12:30PMFolstadIEXGrading: ABCDF.
PCS-119-00143020Colombian War & PeaceWAR & PEACE IN COLOMBIAN FILM & LITERATURE. This course proposes to study the origins and development of armed conflict, and the agreements reached to end such conflict, by following the case study of Colombia. We will read historical texts, news, and novels and students will work together towards visualizing how different topics related to truth, memory, and reparations are represented in the studied texts. All students will read a few basic materials on the first week, but after that, all students will read different works (in English or Spanish depending on whether the student is capable of reading in Spanish) and identify in the text concepts studied during the first week. This course will also include the use of digital tools to keep track of data gathered and concepts identified in readings, as well as to visualize data points that result from what is identified in texts.M T W R F11:30AM01:30PMMejia SuarezIEXGrading: ABCDF.
Initially open only to students with
sophomore standing.
PCS-225-00143022Nobel Women LeadershipCOURAGE & CONTROVERSY: WOMEN, LEADERSHIP, & THE NOBEL PEACE PRIZE. Nuns, lawyers, social workers and school girls have won the Nobel Peace Prize. These global leaders use their skills to supreme advantage, embracing a vision and moving it forward, while facing personal danger, ethical conflicts, social crisis, and their own human flaws. Students will immerse themselves in this inspiration and reality, intensively studying four extraordinary leaders: Mother Teresa, Aung San Suu Kyi, Leymah Gbowee, and Malala Yousafzai. What drives them? How do they influence and communicate? What do they accomplish? How do they survive success and failure? How applicable are their approaches to everyday life? This highly interactive class will examine these questions through biographies, videos, lectures, writing, discussions, and student presentations.M T W R12:00PM02:30PM IEXGrading: ABCDF.
PHI-114-00143014Theism & RationalityIs belief in God rational? Some think it depends on whether the evidence suggests that God exists. Others claim that belief is reasonable because it is beneficial. A third school, however, is rarely considered. "Wittgensteinians" argue that the debate over God's existence/nonexistence rests on confusion. The prior question is whether "God exists" expresses the descriptive claim that a certain "object"/"entity" exists, or whether it expresses commitment to a religious life. Our focus will be on the nature of religious belief and its bearing on public disputes, such as state-church separation, creationism/intelligent design, and so-called "new atheism" criticisms of religion.M T W R F11:00AM01:00PMUrquidezIEXGrading: Pass/Fail.
PHI-215-00142893Women/Myths/MatriarchsWITCHY WOMEN: WOMEN, MYTH, AND MATRIARCHAL CULTURE. Oracle, sorceress, demon-worshipper, and hag: all have been terms used to describe certain kinds of women, better known as simply "witches." But who is the "witchy woman," and why is she so witchy? This course will look at the cultural shifts and myths that mark transformations in the way of thinking about women: women as matriarchal leaders, and women as witches. Students will study various approaches to time, ritual, myth, symbols, and the philosophy of culture, and investigate the conceptual relations between women, the body, and the earth. M T W R F10:30AM12:30PMMuellerIEXGrading: Pass/Fail.
PHY-101-00142894Physical World--El EdPHYSICAL WORLD FOR ELEMENTARY EDUCATORS. This course provides an introduction to both classical and modern physics, and is intended for elementary education majors. Topics of study include mechanics, heat, thermodynamics, wave phenomena, sound, light, electricity, magnetism, relativity, quantum theory, atomic and nuclear physics. These will be developed historically, and emphasis will be placed on topics which relate to current social issues. The approach will be quantitative, involving extensive use of algebra, but no calculus is required. Course includes a lab. Does not count toward a physics major.M T W R F09:00AM11:30AMThomasIEXGrading: ABCDF.
Meeting time includes Daily Sabbath break.
Lab meets 1:30pm - 3:30pm on TR in OHS 224.
PHY-112-00143048Australia/NZ AstronomyASTRONOMY OF THE SOUTHERN SKIES. This course is designed to provide an overview of astronomy, astrophysics, and cosmology to non-science and science students (no background in science or mathematics is assumed). Students will become acquainted with the methods of observational astronomy and the use of small astronomical telescopes. They will also learn about the astrophysical evidence which forms the basis of cosmological theories of the nature and origin of the solar system, galaxies, and the universe. This course will include discussions of the history, philosophy, and culture of science, as well as observation of the southern sky. The laboratory exercises will include those integrated with the lecture/discussion and evening observing. By basing this course in Australia and New Zealand, the students will be immersed in those cultures while studying astronomy in general. The many class trips and outside speakers will give the students an international perspective on science and astronomy in particular.   NiederriterIEXGrading: ABCDF.
TRAVEL COURSE-Permission Required.
POL-107-00142905Hollywood & PoliticsU.S. POLITICS, THE VIEW FROM HOLLYWOOD. Politics has always been a major theme for the American film industry. Controversies over the historical accuracy and political intent of films such as JFK and Malcolm X demonstrate that movies have the capacity to influence public attitudes towards specific figures and the political culture itself. This course will analyze several films, deliberately spanning the time period from the Great Depression to the present, to see what they tell us about the political culture of their time, and what messages (if any) they have for contemporary politics. Students will watch and discuss approximately 15 films, and will complete two exams and two papers (topics to be determined).M T W R F12:30PM03:30PMGilbertIEXGrading: ABCDF.
Meets until 2:30pm on Fridays.
PSY-120-00142939Psych Heroes/VilliansPSYCHOPATHOLOGY OF HEROES AND VILLAINS. Why is Batman so angsty? Why are Jon Snow and Ramsay Snow complete opposites? Was Dexter really only a killer because of his past? This course will use developmental psychology to explain behaviors of heroes and villians in popular culture (including comic books, TV shows, and films). Academic readings will cover concepts from developmental psychology as predictors of disordered thinking and behaviors. Comic book issues, television episodes, and films will be assigned to illustrate how the readings apply to the characters. Classes will be primarily discussion-based and will focus on tying academic readings to characters' origin stories.M T W R F12:00PM02:30PMSaczawaIEXGrading: ABCDF.
PSY-207-00142788Soc & Adolescent BrainSOCIETY AND THE DEVELOPING ADOLESCENT BRAIN.  "Teenagers are crazy!" Sound familiar? Although this is a common sentiment, the development of the adolescent brain is much more complex and purposeful than originally thought. The study of adolescence and the adolescent brain has increased significantly over the past two decades, and we now know that there are issues unique to adolescence that directly affect brain development, which can have long-term behavioral consequences (both positive and negative). Examining human and animal research, the course will provide a comprehensive overview of adolescent brain development. Students will engage in discussion and debate regarding specific issues during adolescence (i.e., bullying, sexual identity, culpability, emotional regulation) that shape who we are as we become adults and how society views, treats, and portrays adolescents based on these unique experiences. Students will also design a workshop aiming to inform the community about the topics discussed in class.M T W R F10:30AM12:30PMDe LormeIEXGrading: ABCDF.
REL-107-00142908Race+Religion in WireRACE AND RELIGION IN "THE WIRE". David Simon's "The Wire" is a critically acclaimed television series known for its vivid depictions of the complex interactions between race, sex, class, and religion. By way of this immersion experience in a creative and innovative work, students will critically engage issues of diversity, identity, and equality. This class will examine the  presuppositions, commitments, and practices that animate the injustices of our pluralistic society. This task will enrich students lives as they prepare for leadership and mission beyond the college experience. The course is explicitly interdisciplinary, drawing from the arts, religious studies, and the social sciences. M T W R F10:30AM12:30PMVan YperenIEXGrading: Pass/Fail.
REL-117-00142789Zen Martial ArtsZEN IN THE MARTIAL ARTS. This course teaches the basic techniques and applications of traditional martial arts, along with the art's philosophical and ethical dimensions. Designed for students with little or no martial arts background, this course will consist of systematic training in offensive and defensive skills, pre-arranged forms, and basic self defense. Students will also delve into the Buddhist and Confucian elements that make up the principles of this martial art. The course will conclude with student performances of basic techniques (kihon) and prearranged forms (kata).M T W R F12:00PM02:00PMChaIEXGrading: Pass/Fail.
REL-204-00142906Experiencing PassoverEXPERIENCING THE PASSOVER SEDER. This course will explore the Passover seder, a Jewish ritual of significance to Christians. We will use an anthropological perspective to discuss how the seder conveys values and behaviors from generation to generation, and how it compares to Christian practices. We will visit a grocery store to learn about kosher food, and attend a synagogue service in the Twin Cities. Students will learn enough Hebrew to read or sing some simple prayers. In the last week students will conduct a model seder. By the end, students will be prepared to knowledgeably participate in a community seder at Gustavus this spring. M T W R F10:30AM01:30PMBroidaIEXGrading: Pass/Fail.
S/A-204-00143021Oral History MN LandORAL HISTORY OF THE MINNESOTA RIVER VALLEY: THE WORKING LAND. In this course, students will collect, analyze, and present interviews for an oral history project on farming in the Minnesota River Valley. Farming in this region is sometimes glorified, sometimes vilified, and its practices and image have morphed with the evolution of technology and shifts in society and culture. We will explore what farming in our region has meant globally and regionally, in political and environmental terms, and for the diverse families and individuals who have worked the land. Students will learn skills for interviewing and qualitative analysis.M T W R F10:30AM12:30PMEricksenIEXGrading: Student Option.
Initially open only to students with
sophomore standing.
SCA-212-00142790Queer Nordic LiteratureThis course focuses on the comparative study of queer Nordic literature from the late nineteenth century to today. National canons and trends are considered in the context of the social, political and cultural changes throughout the twentieth and twenty-first centuries in the Nordic region using feminist and queer theories of gender and sexuality. Course readings range from canonical texts with queer themes to contemporary literary representations of queer sexuality, identity and gender.M T W R F12:30PM02:30PMWarburtonIEXGrading: ABCDF.
SCA-214-00143015Folklore & Its UsesFOLKLORE AND ITS USES: SCANDINAVIA AND BEYOND. In this course students will study Scandinavian  folklore, the origins of folkloristics and our  contemporary notions of heritage, and will learn  to think critically about their own relationship  to tradition and heritage. We will also learn  that folkloristics is not just about the past:  students will discuss and reflect on their own  connection to heritage and our core assignment  for the course will be the collection of material  for our own folklore archive. Excursions and  guest speakers will allow students to engage with  local examples of heritage and traditional  material.M T W R F10:30AM12:30PMOlsenIEXGrading: ABCDF.
SPA-267-00143047Peru: Community Bldg.COMMUNITY BUILDING AND CULTURAL DIALOG IN PERU. This course is a community-based learning experience based in Chimbote, Peru. Students will offer a two-week English course in this city through a Non-Governmental Organization that works with the community. Additionally, students will have a full immersion in Peruvian culture through daily interaction with the Chimbote community, homestays, service activities in the neighborhood, and excursions to relevant sites in Peru, such as Lima, Cusco, and Machu Picchu. Preparatory readings and presentations will provide the historical and cultural frame for understanding the challenges that the Chimbote community faces, and also for engaging in a productive cultural dialog with Peruvian people, both through language teaching, as well as outside the classrooms.   Sanchez-GonzalezIEXGrading: Pass/Fail.
TRAVEL COURSE-Permission Required.
Meets on campus Jan. 8-10 at 10:30am -
6:00pm in AND 100.
Meeting time on campus includes lunch break.
T/D-107-00142918January ProductionJANUARY PLAY PRODUCTION. This course is an intensive four-week production workshop culminating in performances early in February. The work is selected annually and is part of the production season of the Theatre and Dance Department. In alternate years, a musical is produced in conjunction with the Department of Music. The daily schedule may include some combination of acting, singing, dance or instrumental rehearsals as well as scenery and costume construction. Performers and musicians may also be assigned to production crews. There will be opportunities to discuss the work as it progresses with the directors and designers to gain insight into the theatrical process. Students wishing to perform must audition in late October or early November. Limited spaces are availabe for students interested only in working on technical crews, and they must interview with the Technical Director in October or November and register for T/D-211, 212, or 213. Performers and musicians must be available for rehearsals and performances in February.M T W R F10:30AM09:30PMSehamIEXGrading: ABCDF.
Permission Required.
Meeting time includes 1 hour lunch break and
Common Meeting Time break (2:30pm-4:30pm on F).
Meets in FAM 214 at 12:30pm.
T/D-111-00142937Scene/Props PracticumThis course provides the student with practical experience with technical production. May be repeated for credit. Permission of instructor is required.M T W R F10:30AM05:30PMWilkensIEXGrading: ABCDF.
Permission Required.
Meeting time includes 1 hour lunch break and
Common Meeting Time break (2:30pm-4:30pm on F).
T/D-112-00142938Light/Sound PracticumThis course provides the student with practical experience with technical production. May be repeated for credit.M T W R F10:30AM05:30PMWilkensIEXGrading: ABCDF.
Permission Required.
Meeting time includes 1 hour lunch break and
Common Meeting Time break (2:30pm-4:30pm on F).
T/D-114-00142917Dance Rep IntensiveDANCE REPERTORY INTENSIVE. This course will  provide the opportunity for serious dance  students to work intensively with guest Jazz  teachers Jeffrey Peterson, Erin Leibhard, and  Jennifer Glaws. Students will take a two-hour  technique class taught by one of these  outstanding dance educators, which will be  followed by opportunities to participate in the  creation or reconstruction of a new dance for  students.M T W R F10:30AM08:30PMRolnickIEXGrading: ABCDF.
Permission Required.
Meeting time includes a 1 hr. lunch break; a 2 hr.
dinner break; and a Common Meeting Time break
(2:30pm-4:30pm on F).
T/D-115-00142933Stage ManagementSTAGE MANAGEMENT PRACTICUM. This course provides the student with practical experience with technical production. May be repeated for credit.M T W R F  WilkensIEXGrading: ABCDF.
Permission Required.
Meeting time to be arranged.
T/D-199-00143050Arts & Perf. in LondonARTS & PERFORMANCE IN LONDON. This course is a critical exploration of London through live performance, art exhibits, and its publics. Our study will focus on the visual, musical and performing arts including visits to traditional and cutting edge performance venues, galleries, and museums. Students will have the opportunity to study and analyze how the performing and visual arts inform contemporary British identity constructions through the lens of performance studies. The class will take advantage of London?s rich and diverse artistic heritage through hands on experimentation in order to understand the role of the arts in the context of a metropolitan city. In addition to fieldwork, students will participate in group discussions, oral presentations, and written critiques throughout the term.   MacCarthyIEXGrading: Pass/Fail.
TRAVEL COURSE-Permission Required.
T/D-211-00142915Scene/Props PracticumThis course provides the student with practical experience with technical production. May be repeated for credit.M T W R F10:30AM05:30PMWilkensIEXGrading: ABCDF.
Permission Required.
Meeting time includes 1 hour lunch break and
Common Meeting Time break (2:30pm-4:30pm on F).
T/D-212-00142916Light/Sound PracticumThis course provides the student with practical experience with technical production. May be repeated for credit.M T W R F10:30AM05:30PMWilkensIEXGrading: ABCDF.
Permission Required.
Meeting time includes 1 hour lunch break and
Common Meeting Time break (2:30pm-4:30pm on F).
T/D-215-00142931Stage ManagementThis course provides the student with practical experience with technical production. May be repeated for credit.M T W R F  WilkensIEXGrading: ABCDF.
Permission Required.
Meeting time to be arranged.
T/D-219-00142927Asst Directing PractASSISTANT DIRECTING PRACTICUM. This course provides students with practical experience with technical production. May be repeated for credit.M T W R F10:30AM09:30PMSehamIEXGrading: ABCDF.
Permission Required.
Meeting time includes 1 hour lunch break and
Common Meeting Time break (2:30pm-4:30pm on F).
T/D-237-00142934Costume ConstructionHANDS-ON COSTUME CONSTRUCTION. Do you love Project Runway? Would you like to learn how to make clothes that appear on stage? Then this class is for you! We will be building the costumes for the January production. No previous theatre or sewing experience necessary. You will learn to machine and hand sew, and then we will build garments from scratch and alter existing garments which will be worn in the actual production. Assignments vary but can include costume building and alterations, crafts, hat making (millinery), and jewelry making. But it's so many hours! Most of your homework will be done in class. M T W R F10:30AM05:30PMMcConnellIEXGrading: ABCDF.
Permission Required.
Meeting time includes 1 hour lunch break and
Common Meeting Time break (2:30pm-4:30pm on F).
T/D-238-00142921Productn ConstructionHANDS-ON PRODUCTION CONSTRUCTION. Would you like to learn how to use power tools? Build cool things? Get dirty? Then this is the class for you! We will be building the scenery, props and doing lighting for the January production. No previous theatre or tool experience is needed. You will learn to safely use hand/power tools before embarking on projects that will be used in an actual production. Assignments vary but can include building, painting, research, lighting and welding. Why so many hours? Well, most of your homework will be done in class.M T W R F10:30AM05:30PMWilkensIEXGrading: ABCDF.
Permission Required.
Meeting time includes 1 hour lunch break and
Common Meeting Time break (2:30pm-4:30pm on F).
T/D-272-00142923Creative ResearchCREATIVE RESEARCH INTENSIVE. This course provides a mentored opportunity to gain hands-on experience in a particular focus area of theatre arts. Working with a faculty advisor, students will undertake a specific project integral to the production of the January Interim theatre production. Students will be integrally involved at every level of production, and will have a specific responsibility/role in the design, directing, or performance process.M T W R F10:30AM09:30PMSehamIEXGrading: ABCDF.
Meeting time includes 1 hour lunch break and
Common Meeting Time break (2:30pm-4:30pm on F).
T/D-372-00142924Creative ResearchCREATIVE RESEARCH INTENSIVE. This course provides an opportunity for individual coaching/mentoring in theatrical design and technology, acting, or directing. While structured according to the skill levels of individual students, the course is intended to provide advanced students with a master class for preparation of materials for application to graduate school or professional work.M T W R F10:30AM09:30PMSehamIEXGrading: ABCDF.
Meeting time includes 1 hour lunch break and
Common Meeting Time break (2:30pm-4:30pm on F).
T/D-372-00242928Creative ResearchCREATIVE RESEARCH INTENSIVE. This course provides an opportunity for individual coaching/mentoring in theatrical design and technology, acting, or directing. While structured according to the skill levels of individual students, the course is intended to provide advanced students with a master class for preparation of materials for application to graduate school or professional work.M T W R F  McConnellIEXGrading: ABCDF.
Permission Required.