Academic Catalog: 2016–2017
- Joel Carlin, Chairperson
- Colleen Jacks
- Margaret Bloch Qazi (On leave, 2016- 2017)
- Laura Burrack
- Jeffrey Dahlseid
- Eric Elias
- Michael Ferragamo
- Ngawang Gonsar
- Jon Grinnell
- Cindy Johnson
- Yuta Kawarasaki
- Brenda Kelly (Provost and Dean of the Faculty, 2016–2017)
- Pamela Kittelson
- Amy Kochsiek (Visiting, 2016-2017)
- Sanjive Qazi (On leave, Spring 2017)
- Brookhart Shields
Students who major in Biology at Gustavus Adolphus College investigate all the major fields of the life sciences—from how molecules and genes work to how organisms respond, to how nutrients flow through an ecosystem. Students have the opportunity to expand the boundaries of scientific knowledge by engaging in research in courses taught by a broadly trained, committed faculty, and in optional intensive research collaborations with a faculty mentor.
While encouraging in-depth preparation for graduate and professional studies, the Biology Department places a strong emphasis on breadth of understanding. All students will complete a core introductory Biology sequence of courses (BIO-101, Principles; 102, Organismal; 201, Cell & Molecular; and 202, Ecology,
Evolution & Behavior) augmented with courses in Chemistry and Mathematics. This core sequence is structured to prepare students for advanced scientific studies while introducing them to a broad foundation. Two Chemistry courses (CHE-107, Principles; and 141, Organic 1) must be taken prior to BIO-201 and BIO-202. Level II courses have a prerequisite of BIO-101 and BIO-102, while Level III courses require completion of the four-course Biology core and two courses in Chemistry.
The Biology Department encourages its students to study abroad. Many programs offer courses that will transfer back as part of Biology major/minor credit, including these from the past few years: Lancaster University (England), The University of Cape Town (South Africa), University College Cork (Ireland), The University of Aberdeen (Scotland), The Universities of Melbourne and Queensland (Australia), and non-university-based programs in Costa Rica, Tanzania, Denmark, and Namibia. Interim Experience courses also encourage international experiences, with recent Biology offerings in Tanzania, Ecuador, México, Bolivia, and Guatemala.
Sequential courses and courses with prerequisites require that prior courses have been completed with a grade of C or better (with the exception of BIO-101 and CHE-107 which must be graded C- or better) for all students.
Eight regular semester courses in Biology, plus CHE-107 and CHE- 141, and one course in Calculus or Statistics. The Biology courses must include BIO-101, BIO-102, BIO-201, BIO-202, and four additional courses level II or above selected in consultation with a faculty advisor. Three of these additional courses must be level III. A combined average GPA of 2.0 or higher is required from all courses counted toward the major (Biology, Chemistry, and Math) for successful completion of the major.
CHE-255, GEO-241, or PSY-260 may be used as a level II course toward the major. Additionally, in the years it is offered, a comprehensive departmental program assessment exam is required of all graduating majors.
Life Science Teaching Major:
Two Life Science Teaching licenses are possible through the state of Minnesota: grades 5 through 8 and 9 through 12 licensure. It is recommended that candidates complete both licenses to be competitive for teaching positions.
The Life Science Teaching Major for grades 9-12 requires the same courses as the Biology major, with BIO-374, Genetics, as one of the required level III Biology courses. In addition to the Biology, Chemistry, and Mathematics courses required for the Biology major, the core Secondary Education courses must be completed as well as EDU-248. A GPA of 2.0 or higher is required from all courses counted toward the major for successful completion of the major. The addition of four courses:
- PHY-100 (or PHY 120/122 AND PHY 170/172)
will add the 5-8 middle level science license to the 9-12 Life Science license. (Note: PHY 100 is an IEX course and is offered every other January in place of the two sequences of physics courses.)
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Major:
BIO-101, BIO-102, BIO-201, BIO-202, CHE-107, and CHE-141. A GPA of 2.0 or higher is required from all courses counted toward the minor for successful completion of the minor.
See Neuroscience section of the catalog.
Departmental Honors in Biology:
The Department has an Honors Program. Please consult the Biology Handbook or Biology website for details.
Students intending to major or minor but not meeting the GPA requirements stated above may retake select courses and improve grades to address the requirement; there is no option to petition this requirement.
Students not intending to major in Biology who want to take a core course out of sequence may do so by petition to the department. Petitioners must discuss their academic plans with a member of the department before submission of the petition. Approval of the petition allows enrollment in the core course only. Petition forms are available in the departmental office or on the Biology website (gustavus.edu/ biology).
All advanced courses (Level II and III) retain the prerequisites stated above. Nonmajors may petition exception to the prerequisites, but the following three criteria must be met prior to enrollment:
- Completion of four science courses with a laboratory component. This is to ensure the critical skills required for advanced laboratory work.
- A minimum grade point average of 3.0 in the four science courses.
- Adequate space exists after enrolling Biology majors, who have priority for advanced courses.
Preparation for Graduate School
Biology majors preparing for graduate school are urged to consult with a faculty advisor as soon as possible in their academic career. Careful selection of courses beyond the core is important for preparation toward a specific sub-discipline. Most students preparing for graduate work complete additional courses in calculus, statistics, chemistry, and physics. Plans should be made to take the general and advanced tests of the Graduate Record Exam (GRE) at the end of the junior or early in the senior year.
100 Biology Explorations (1 course) This course explores the diversity of life and how organisms, including humans, function and interact in the biological world. Topics include how scientists identify and evaluate questions and the genetics, evolution, ecology, physiology, and cellular biology of living organisms. Approaches to understanding these topics will change depending on the instructor. Connections are made across disciplines through discussion, lecture, case studies, and laboratories. For students not intending to major in the sciences. BIO-100 and BIO-101 cannot both be taken for credit. NASP, Spring semester.
101 Principles of Biology (1 course) A general introduction to the study of biology. Topics include the structural organization of organisms, cellular reproduction, basic metabolism, genetics, ecology, and evolution. Three hours of lecture and two hours of laboratory weekly. Required for students intending to major in Biology, Environmental Studies, or Nursing. Recommended for majors in Chemistry, Life Science Teaching, and Exercise Physiology. BIO-100 and BIO-101 cannot both be taken for credit. NASP, Fall semester.
102 Organismal Biology (1 course) This course introduces the organization of the major organismal groups including bacteria, protists, fungi, plants, and animals. Topics include the evolutionary histories of major groups, their structure-function relationships, the physiology of select systems, and the impact organisms have in our daily lives. Four hours of lecture and three hours of laboratory weekly. Prerequisite: BIO-101. Spring semester.
201 Cell and Molecular Biology (1 course) This course provides a study of the structure and function of eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. Additional topics include energy transformation, respiration, photosynthesis, cytogenetics, signal transduction, and the molecular aspects of gene regulation. Four hours of lecture and three hours of laboratory weekly. Prerequisites: BI0-101, BIO-102, CHE-107, CHE-141 and declared major in Biology and/or Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. Fall semester.
202 Evolution, Ecology, and Behavior (1 course) This course focuses on three themes: (1) the mechanisms and patterns of microevolution and macroevolution, including the evidence for evolution and a broad survey of the evolution of life on earth; (2) ecology, including organismal responses to the environment, population dynamics, species interactions, community structure, and ecosystem processes; and (3) behavior. Four hours of lecture and three hours of laboratory or field trip weekly. Prerequisites: BIO-101, BIO-102, BIO-201, CHE-107, and CHE-141. Spring semester.
218 Fundamentals of Microbiology (1 course) A study of the interactions between microbes and humans, with a particular focus on human disease. Topics include the morphology and biochemistry of bacteria and viruses, how they cause human disease, how the body fights infection, and how infection can be controlled. Three hours of lecture and three hours of laboratory weekly. BIO-218 and BIO-380 cannot both be counted towards the Biology major. Prerequisite: BIO-101. Spring semester.
241 Invertebrate Zoology (1 course) This course explores the remarkable lives of animals without backbones including their systematics, life history , form and function. Lectures focus on the unique features of different invertebrate clades and how representative individuals interact with each other and their environments. Laboratory work examines invertebrate diversity, structure, and function. Three hours of lecture and three hours of laboratory weekly. Prerequisites: BIO-101 and BIO-102. WRITD, Fall semester.
242 Vertebrate Zoology (1 course) A study of the life histories, behavior, morphology, physiology, taxonomy, and conservation of animals representing each of the vertebrate classes, with emphasis on Minnesota fauna. Three hours of lecture and three hours of laboratory weekly. Prerequisites: BIO-101 and BIO-102. Spring semester.
244, 344 Special Topics Seminar (1 course, 1 course) Study of special topics in biology. Research, individual, and/or group projects. Topics announced periodically. May be repeated for credit. Offered occasionally.
245 Conservation Biology (1 course) This course focuses on the ecology of conserving biodiversity. It is organized to include species, population, and ecosystem-level issues. Topics such as biodiversity, extinction, sustained yield, exotic species, and preserve design will be covered. Management implications are integrated throughout the course. Labs emphasize ecosystems and conservation problems of southern Minnesota. Three hours of lecture and three hours of laboratory weekly. Prerequisite: BIO-101 or ENV-120/GEO-120 and declared major in Biology or Environmental Studies. WRITD, Fall semester.
268, 368 Career Exploration, Internship (course value to be determined) Off-campus experience related to the student’s major. A limit of one course from BIO-392 or BIO-268, 368 may be used toward the Biology major and must be approved by the department in advance of the experience. See description of the Internship Program.
370 Ecology (1 course) This course examines the principles that determine the distribution and abundance of organisms. Topics include population dynamics, species interactions, community organization, energy flow, and nutrient cycles. These principles are related to environmental issues and natural resource management. Three hours of lecture and three hours of laboratory weekly, including field trips and greenhouse experiments. Prerequisites: BIO-101, BIO-102, BIO- 201, BIO-202, CHE-107 and CHE-141. Spring semester.
372 Animal Behavior (1 course) The study of animal behavior from an evolutionary perspective. This course will cover proximate mechanisms and ultimate adaptiveness of behavior in a diversity of organisms from invertebrates to humans. It will examine how behaviors enhance survival and reproductive success, and the ways in which ecological pressures shape behav- iors involved in communication, predator avoidance, foraging, parental investment, altruism, and sociality, among other topics. Three hours of lecture and three hours of laboratory weekly. Prerequisite: BIO-101, BIO-102, BIO-201, BIO-202, CHE-107 and CHE-141. Fall semester.
373 Cell Biology (1 course) This course examines cell morphology, signaling, trafficking, and life cycle events. Connections between Biochemistry and Physiology are emphasized. Laboratory experiments exploring these issues will include a variety of techniques using primary cultures and cell lines, with an emphasis on qualitative and quantitative light microscopy. Three hours of lecture and four hours of laboratory weekly. Prerequisites: BIO-101, BIO-102, BIO-201, BIO-202, CHE-107 and CHE-141. WRITD, Spring semester.
374 Genetics (1 course) This course extends the study of genetic principles introduced in the four-course core sequence. Topics will include transmission genetics, cytogenetics, quantitative genetics, and the molecular genetics of both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Four hours of lecture weekly. Prerequisites: BIO-101, BIO-102, BIO-201, BIO-202, CHE-107 and CHE-141. Fall semester.
375 Cancer Biology (1 course) This course will explore a selection of the mechanisms by which genetic changes permit uncontrolled cell growth in cancerous cells. We will examine how altered cell-cell interactions and physiology permit cancer cells to metastasize to multiple tissues. Additionally, we will discuss immunological defenses and modern treatment approaches that limit cancer cells’ growth and spread. Three hours of lecture and three hours of laboratory weekly. Prerequisites: BIO-101, BIO-102, BIO-201, BIO-202, CHE-107 and CHE-141. Fall semester.
376 Entomology (1 course) This course takes an integrative approach to understand insect diversity, physiology, ecology, and evolution. Students examine insects’ profound impacts on ecological systems as well as human health and well-being. Laboratory work explores insect development, physiology, and behavior. Students also create an insect collection over the course of the semester. Three hours of lecture and three hours of laboratory weekly. Prerequisites: BIO- 101, BIO-102, BIO-201, BIO-202, CHE-107 and CHE-141. Fall semester, even years.
377 Plant Systematics (1 course) This course is an introduction to the systematics of vascular plants (flowering plants, conifers, and ferns) with an emphasis on North America and Minnesota fl ra. Students will learn the terminology, identify representative families, and become familiar with the use of taxonomic keys. Topics included are phylogenetic relationships, speciation, phytogeography, plant mating, and pollination biology. Three hours of lecture and three hours of laboratory weekly. Prerequisite: BIO-101, BIO-102, BIO-201, BIO-202, CHE-107 and CHE-141. Offered occasionally, Spring semester.
378 Plant Physiology (1 course) This course focuses on physiological interactions between plants and the environment. Topics include: 1) how plants respond to challenging physical, chemical, and biological factors; 2) how plants acquire and exchange energy or nutrients with the environment; and 3) plant growth and development integrated by hormonal interactions. These principles are related to ecology, environmental issues, and molecular biology. Three hours of lecture and three hours of laboratory weekly. Prerequisites: BIO-101, BIO-102, BIO-201, BIO-202, CHE-107 and CHE-141. WRITD, Offered occasionally, Fall semester.
380 Microbiology (1 course) This course will focus on prokaryotic cell structure and function, bacterial growth and metabolism, the molecular genetics of bacteria and viruses, diversity among microbes, and the interactions between microbes and their environment. Three hours of lecture and three hours of laboratory weekly. BIO-218 and BIO-380 cannot both be counted towards the Biology major. Prerequisites: BIO-101, BIO-102, BIO-201, BIO-202. CHE-107 and CHE-141. Spring semester.
381 Immunology (1 course) A study of the molecular, genetic, and cellular components of the immune system. Three hours of lecture and three hours of laboratory weekly. Prerequisite: BIO- 101, BIO-102, BIO-201, BIO-202, CHE-107 and CHE-141. Fall semester.
382 Developmental Biology (1 course) This course studies the processes involved in the generation of a multicellular animal from a single cell, including fertilization, embryogenesis, organogenesis, and postembryonic development. These topics are explored through discussions of primary literature, discussion of bioethical implications of developmental technologies, and an independent laboratory research project. Three hours of lecture and three hours of laboratory weekly. Prerequisites: BIO-101, BIO-102, BIO-201, BIO-202, CHE-107 and CHE-141. Spring semester.
383 Aquatic Biology (1 course) A study of the distribution, ecology, and adaptations of organisms living in aquatic habitats within a framework of environmental geology and chemistry. Laboratory work explores aquatic organism diversity, water chemistry, and community structure with an emphasis upon aquatic habitat sampling and experimental design. Three hours of lecture and three hours of laboratory weekly. Prerequisites: BIO-101, BIO-102, BIO-201, BIO- 202, CHE-107, and CHE-141. Offered occasionally, Fall semester.
384 Neurobiology (1 course) An examination of the nervous system at three different scales: (1) cellular foundations of electrical excitability, synaptic transmission, and the arrangement of individual cells into a system; (2) system behavior in controlling conscious sensation and voluntary movement; and (3) mechanisms that underlie behavior, state changes, and plasticity. Four hours of lecture and three hours of laboratory weekly. Prerequisites: BIO-202 or PSY-260 and permission. WRITD, Fall semester.
385 Evolution (1 course) An advanced readings/discussion course on the theory and mechanisms of evolutionary change in populations. Topics include phylogenies, evolutionary genetics, natural selection, adaptation, and an emphasis on experimental design. Four hours of lecture weekly. Prerequisite: BIO-101, BIO-102, BIO-201, BIO-202, CHE-107 and CHE-141. Offered occasionally, Spring semester.
386 Comparative Physiology (1 course) A chemical and physical analysis of function in living organisms, concentrating on the comparative aspects of organ function in a variety of animals and habitats. Three hours of lecture and three hours of laboratory weekly. Prerequisites: BIO- 101, BIO-102, BIO-201, BIO-202, CHE-107 and CHE-141. Spring semester.
388 Molecular Genetics (1 course) A study of the molecular biology of the gene. The emphasis will be on the structure and function of nucleic acids, and expression and regulation of genes in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Current methods used to study genetic regulation and genomes, including recombinant DNA, will be discussed and used in lab. Four hours of lecture and four hours of laboratory weekly. Prerequisites: BIO-101, BIO-102, BIO-201, BIO-202, CHE-107 and CHE-141. WRITD, Spring semester.
291, 391 Independent Study (Course value to be determined) Special topics for independent study. Admission by permission of instructor. Students who have completed BIO-101 and BIO-102 will enroll in BIO-291. Students who have completed the core will enroll in BIO-391.
292, 392 Biology Research (Course value to be determined) This course is designed for student/faculty research. Enrollment is limited to students working directly with a faculty member on a research project. Credit is assigned on the basis of 1.0 course equal to 12 hours per week of research work with the faculty. A limit of 1.0 course of BIO-292/392 or BIO-268/368 may be used toward the biology major and must be approved by the department in advance of the experience so that the department’s expectations are clear. Offered each semester.
396 Directed Research (1 course) Directed group research on a special topic to be identified by the instructor. Students will work together with the instructor in developing a research proposal, designing an experimental protocol, and collecting and analyzing data to further understanding of current biological issues. Students will be expected to present this research in the form of a manuscript suitable for submission for publication and as a public presentation.Research topics and instructors vary by semester. Prerequisite: permission of instructor. WRITD, Offered occasionally, Fall and Spring semesters.
397 Biology Honors Thesis (.13 course) Students enrolled in this course complete their work towards Departmental Honors in Biology. As agreed upon with their Honors Thesis advisor and committee, students: 1) complete their proposed research, 2) write an honors paper (extensive literature review) or thesis (experimental work), and 3) prepare for their oral exam. Consult the Biology Handbook or Biology web site for additional details regarding preparation and participation in Departmental Honors in Biology (gustavus.edu/biology/honors.php).
The following courses are offered by other departments and may be selected as electives in the Biology major:
- GEO-241 Paleontology
- CHE-255 Biochemistry
- PSY-260 Introduction to Neuroscience