Martin Luther vs Gustavus Adolphus (Sep 24, 2011)



 

Volleyball Box Score

 
Volleyball Box Score
Gustavus Adolphus College Volleyball
Martin Luther vs Gustavus Adolphus
(Sep 24, 2011 at St. Paul, Minn.)

   Martin Luther      ATTACK  SET  SERVE  SRV  DEF  BLOCK  GEN 
##  Player  SP  TA  PCT  SA  SE  RE  DIG  BS  BA  BE  BHE 
5   Kayla Schoeneck   13  29  .414  11 
8   Miranda Maasz   .000  25 
13  Rebecca Engelbrecht   -.333 
15  Rachel Hein   23  .174 
16  Emily Boldt   28  .071 
17  Katelyn Hauf   20  -.050 
2   Jennifer Draeger   .000  18 
3   Maggie Rasmussen   .000 
4   Laruen Maertz   .000 
6   Elizabeth Loersh   .000 
7   Alex Anthon   -.250 
9   MacCartney Mendolla   .000 
10  Rachel Larson   -.222 
  Totals  33  21  127  .094  28  14  50  16 
  
  TOTAL TEAM BLOCKS: 10.0
TEAM ATTACK BY SET 
Set  TA  Pct 
27  .148 
11  28  .286 
37  -.081 
35  .086 
   
SET SCORES     TEAM RECORDS 
Martin Luther   (1)  16  25  20  13     7-9 (1-1 UMAC)  
Gustavus Adolphus   (3)  25  18  25  25     11-4 (1-1 MIAC)  

   Gustavus Adolphus      ATTACK  SET  SERVE  SRV  DEF  BLOCK  GEN 
##  Player  SP  TA  PCT  SA  SE  RE  DIG  BS  BA  BE  BHE 
1   Malea Noennig   -.200  37 
2   Emily Gilman   .500 
4   Angela Ahrendt   15  28  .429 
12  Jessica Grill   25  .040 
15  Olivia Warren   25  .000  16 
17  Emily Phillips   17  31  .387 
6   Dana Boerboom   .222 
7   Kelsey Florian   -.500  11 
10  Katie Ness   .000  11 
11  Paige Breneman   .000  15 
13  Shelby Nosan   .000 
  Totals  51  24  133  .203  51  14  10  63  12 
  
  TOTAL TEAM BLOCKS: 7.0
TEAM ATTACK BY SET 
Set  TA  Pct 
16  31  .387 
11  37  .054 
13  36  .167 
11  29  .241 
    Site: St. Paul, Minn. (Ericksen Center)
Date: Sep 24, 2011 Attend: 153 Time: 1:15
Referees:
   Total 
Tie scores  10 
Lead changes 

 

Volleyball Detailed Stats

 
Volleyball Detailed Stats
Gustavus Adolphus College Volleyball
Martin Luther vs Gustavus Adolphus
(Sep 24, 2011 at St. Paul, Minn.)

   Martin Luther      ATTACK  ASSIST  SERVE     BLOCKING  RECEPT 
##  Player  SP  TA  PCT  TA  Pct  SA  SE  TA  Pct  Dig  BHE  BS  BA  BE  RE  Pct 
5   Kayla Schoeneck   13  29  .414  .000  .875  11  20  .952 
8   Miranda Maasz   .000  25  106  .236  1.000  .000 
13  Rebecca Engelbrecht   -.333  .000  .000  1.000 
15  Rachel Hein   23  .174  .000  .000  .000 
16  Emily Boldt   28  .071  .500  .000  .000 
17  Katelyn Hauf   20  -.050  .143  .000  1.000 
2   Jennifer Draeger   .000  .000  14  1.000  18  12  .750 
3   Maggie Rasmussen   .000  .000  1.000  .000 
4   Laruen Maertz   .000  .000  .000  .667 
6   Elizabeth Loersh   .000  .000  16  .875  1.000 
7   Alex Anthon   -.250  .000  .778  18  .818 
9   MacCartney Mendolla   .000  .000  15  1.000  .727 
10  Rachel Larson   -.222  1.000  .000  .667 
  Totals.........  33  21  127  .094  28  128  .219  75  .933  50  16  68  14  .829 
  
  TOTAL TEAM BLOCKS: 10.0
TEAM ATTACK BY SET 
Set  TA  Pct 
27  .148 
11  28  .286 
37  -.081 
35  .086 
   
SET SCORES     TEAM RECORDS 
Martin Luther   (1)  16  25  20  13     7-9 (1-1 UMAC)  
Gustavus Adolphus   (3)  25  18  25  25     11-4 (1-1 MIAC)  

   Gustavus Adolphus      ATTACK  ASSIST  SERVE     BLOCKING  RECEPT 
##  Player  SP  TA  PCT  TA  Pct  SA  SE  TA  Pct  Dig  BHE  BS  BA  BE  RE  Pct 
1   Malea Noennig   -.200  37  83  .446  16  1.000  .000 
2   Emily Gilman   .500  .667  .000  .000 
4   Angela Ahrendt   15  28  .429  .000  15  1.000  .000 
12  Jessica Grill   25  .040  .000  1.000  .643 
15  Olivia Warren   25  .000  .000  15  .867  16  16  .941 
17  Emily Phillips   17  31  .387  .000  .000  .000 
6   Dana Boerboom   .222  .000  .000  .000 
7   Kelsey Florian   -.500  11  22  .500  .750  .000 
10  Katie Ness   .000  .000  14  .786  11  1.000 
11  Paige Breneman   .000  .125  15  .867  15  20  .952 
13  Shelby Nosan   .000  .000  .600  1.000 
  Totals.........  51  24  133  .203  51  132  .386  14  10  92  .891  63  12  63  .900 
  
  TOTAL TEAM BLOCKS: 7.0
TEAM ATTACK BY SET 
Set  TA  Pct 
16  31  .387 
11  37  .054 
13  36  .167 
11  29  .241 
    Site: St. Paul, Minn. (Ericksen Center)
Date: Sep 24, 2011 Attend: 153 Time: 1:15
Referees:

   Total 
Tie scores  10 
Lead changes 

 

Short Box Score

 
Short Box Score (Match)
Gustavus Adolphus College Volleyball
Martin Luther vs Gustavus Adolphus
(Sep 24, 2011 at St. Paul, Minn.)

Gustavus Adolphus def. Martin Luther 25-16,18-25,25-20,25-13

Martin Luther (7-9 (1-1 UMAC)) (Kills-aces-blocks) - Kayla
Schoeneck 13-1-0; Rachel Hein 7-0-8; Emily Boldt 6-0-2; Katelyn Hauf
4-0-3; Miranda Maasz 1-0-3; Rachel Larson 1-0-2; Rebecca Engelbrecht
1-0-0; MacCartney Mendolla 0-1-0; Alex Anthon 0-1-0; Elizabeth Loersh
0-3-0; Jennifer Draeger 0-1-0; Totals 33-7-10.0. (Assists) - Miranda
Maasz 25. (Dig leaders) - Jennifer Draeger 18; Kayla Schoeneck 11

Gustavus Adolphus (11-4 (1-1 MIAC)) (Kills-aces-blocks) - Emily
Phillips 17-0-3; Angela Ahrendt 15-4-4; Jessica Grill 8-1-2; Olivia
Warren 6-2-1; Dana Boerboom 3-0-1; Emily Gilman 2-0-2; Malea Noennig
0-2-0; Katie Ness 0-2-0; Paige Breneman 0-2-0; Shelby Nosan 0-1-0;
Totals 51-14-7.0. (Assists) - Malea Noennig 37; Kelsey Florian 11.
(Dig leaders) - Olivia Warren 16; Paige Breneman 15; Katie Ness 11;
Jessica Grill 9; Malea Noennig 8

Site: St. Paul, Minn. (Ericksen Center)

Date: Sep 24, 2011 Attend: 153 Time: 1:15
Referees:

 

Play-by-Play Summary

 
Play-by-Play Summary
Gustavus Adolphus College Volleyball
Martin Luther vs Gustavus Adolphus
(Sep 24, 2011 at St. Paul, Minn.)

1st Set

For GAC: Malea Noennig; Olivia Warren; Emily Phillips; Emily Gilman; Jessica Grill; Angela Ahrendt; libero Paige Breneman.
For MLC: Miranda Maasz; Rebecca Engelbrecht; Rachel Hein; Katelyn Hauf; Kayla Schoeneck; Emily Boldt; libero Jennifer Draeger.
1-0Point GAC - (Malea Noennig) Attack error by Rachel Hein.
2-0Point GAC - (Malea Noennig) Attack error by Rebecca Engelbrecht (block by Emily Gilman; Emily Phillips).
3-0Point GAC - (Malea Noennig) Kill by Emily Phillips (from Malea Noennig).
3-1Point MLC - (Malea Noennig) Kill by Rebecca Engelbrecht (from Miranda Maasz).so
4-1Point GAC - (Miranda Maasz) Kill by Emily Phillips (from Malea Noennig).so
5-1Point GAC - (Olivia Warren) Bad set by Miranda Maasz.
5-2Point MLC - (Olivia Warren) Service error.so
5-3Point MLC - (Elizabeth Loersh) Service ace (Jessica Grill).
5-4Point MLC - (Elizabeth Loersh) Attack error by Jessica Grill.
5-5Point MLC - (Elizabeth Loersh) Attack error by Emily Phillips.
6-5Point GAC - (Elizabeth Loersh) Kill by Emily Phillips (from Emily Gilman).so
6-6Point MLC - (Paige Breneman) Kill by Katelyn Hauf (from Miranda Maasz).so
7-6Point GAC - (Jennifer Draeger) Kill by Angela Ahrendt (from Malea Noennig).so
7-7Point MLC - (Katie Ness) Service error.so
8-7Point GAC - (MacCartney Mendolla) Kill by Angela Ahrendt (from Malea Noennig).so
9-7Point GAC - (Shelby Nosan) Kill by Angela Ahrendt (from Malea Noennig).
10-7Point GAC - (Shelby Nosan) Service ace (Jennifer Draeger).
11-7Point GAC - (Shelby Nosan) Kill by Angela Ahrendt (from Malea Noennig).
Timeout Martin Luther.
11-8Point MLC - (Shelby Nosan) Service error.so
12-8Point GAC - (Kayla Schoeneck) Kill by Angela Ahrendt (from Malea Noennig).so
13-8Point GAC - (Angela Ahrendt) Kill by Emily Phillips (from Malea Noennig).
14-8Point GAC - (Angela Ahrendt) Kill by Emily Phillips (from Malea Noennig).
15-8Point GAC - (Angela Ahrendt) Kill by Olivia Warren (from Malea Noennig).
16-8Point GAC - (Angela Ahrendt) Attack error by Miranda Maasz.
17-8Point GAC - (Angela Ahrendt) Attack error by Emily Boldt (block by Olivia Warren; Emily Phillips).
For MLC: Laruen Maertz.
18-8Point GAC - (Angela Ahrendt) Service ace (Alex Anthon).
19-8Point GAC - (Angela Ahrendt) Service ace (Laruen Maertz).
Timeout Martin Luther.
19-9Point MLC - (Angela Ahrendt) Kill by Emily Boldt (from Miranda Maasz).so
19-10Point MLC - (Maggie Rasmussen) Attack error by Emily Phillips (block by Rachel Hein; Rachel Larson).
19-11Point MLC - (Maggie Rasmussen) Attack error by Olivia Warren.
19-12Point MLC - (Maggie Rasmussen) Kill by Rachel Hein (from Miranda Maasz).
20-12Point GAC - (Maggie Rasmussen) Kill by Emily Phillips (from Malea Noennig).so
20-13Point MLC - (Malea Noennig) Kill by Rachel Hein (from Miranda Maasz).so
21-13Point GAC - (Miranda Maasz) Kill by Olivia Warren (from Malea Noennig).so
For GAC: Jessica Grill.
22-13Point GAC - (Olivia Warren) Kill by Emily Phillips (from Malea Noennig).
23-13Point GAC - (Olivia Warren) Service ace (Alex Anthon).
23-14Point MLC - (Olivia Warren) Kill by Rachel Hein (from Miranda Maasz).so
24-14Point GAC - (Elizabeth Loersh) Kill by Emily Phillips (from Malea Noennig).so
24-15Point MLC - (Paige Breneman) Kill by Katelyn Hauf (from Miranda Maasz).so
24-16Point MLC - (Jennifer Draeger) Kill by Kayla Schoeneck (from Katelyn Hauf).
25-16Point GAC - (Jennifer Draeger) Kill by Jessica Grill (from Malea Noennig).so

2nd Set

1-0Point GAC - (Miranda Maasz) Kill by Emily Phillips (from Kelsey Florian).so
2-0Point GAC - (Kelsey Florian) Kill by Dana Boerboom (from Kelsey Florian).
3-0Point GAC - (Kelsey Florian) Attack error by Katelyn Hauf.
3-1Point MLC - (Kelsey Florian) Service error.so
4-1Point GAC - (Alex Anthon) Kill by Olivia Warren (from Kelsey Florian).so
4-2Point MLC - (Olivia Warren) Attack error by Kelsey Florian.so
4-3Point MLC - (Jennifer Draeger) Kill by Katelyn Hauf.
5-3Point GAC - (Jennifer Draeger) Kill by Dana Boerboom (from Kelsey Florian).so
6-3Point GAC - (Paige Breneman) Kill by Jessica Grill (from Kelsey Florian).
7-3Point GAC - (Paige Breneman) Kill by Angela Ahrendt (from Kelsey Florian).
8-3Point GAC - (Paige Breneman) Kill by Dana Boerboom (from Kelsey Florian).
Timeout Martin Luther.
9-3Point GAC - (Paige Breneman) Service ace (Jennifer Draeger).
10-3Point GAC - (Paige Breneman) Attack error by Katelyn Hauf (block by Angela Ahrendt; Jessica Grill).
11-3Point GAC - (Paige Breneman) Kill by Jessica Grill (from Kelsey Florian), block error by Katelyn Hauf.
11-4Point MLC - (Paige Breneman) Kill by Kayla Schoeneck (from Miranda Maasz), block error by Angela Ahrendt.so
11-5Point MLC - (MacCartney Mendolla) Kill by Kayla Schoeneck (from Miranda Maasz), block error by Angela Ahrendt.
11-6Point MLC - (MacCartney Mendolla) Attack error by Jessica Grill.
11-7Point MLC - (MacCartney Mendolla) Kill by Kayla Schoeneck (from Miranda Maasz).
11-8Point MLC - (MacCartney Mendolla) Kill by Kayla Schoeneck (from Miranda Maasz).
11-9Point MLC - (MacCartney Mendolla) Kill by Kayla Schoeneck.
11-10Point MLC - (MacCartney Mendolla) Service ace (Jessica Grill).
Timeout Gustavus Adolphus.
11-11Point MLC - (MacCartney Mendolla) Kill by Emily Boldt (from Miranda Maasz).
12-11Point GAC - (MacCartney Mendolla) Kill by Angela Ahrendt (from Kelsey Florian).so
12-12Point MLC - (Katie Ness) Kill by Kayla Schoeneck (from Miranda Maasz).so
13-12Point GAC - (Kayla Schoeneck) Kill by Jessica Grill (from Kelsey Florian).so
13-13Point MLC - (Shelby Nosan) Service error.so
13-14Point MLC - (Elizabeth Loersh) Service ace (Paige Breneman).
13-15Point MLC - (Elizabeth Loersh) Attack error by Angela Ahrendt (block by Rachel Hein).
13-16Point MLC - (Elizabeth Loersh) Attack error by Angela Ahrendt.
14-16Point GAC - (Elizabeth Loersh) Service error.so
14-17Point MLC - (Angela Ahrendt) Attack error by Olivia Warren (block by Miranda Maasz; Rachel Hein).so
15-17Point GAC - (Miranda Maasz) Kill by Emily Phillips (from Kelsey Florian).so
15-18Point MLC - (Kelsey Florian) Kill by Rachel Hein (from Miranda Maasz).so
15-19Point MLC - (Alex Anthon) Attack error by Dana Boerboom.
16-19Point GAC - (Alex Anthon) Service error.so
16-20Point MLC - (Olivia Warren) Attack error by Jessica Grill (block by Rachel Hein).so
16-21Point MLC - (Jennifer Draeger) Kill by Kayla Schoeneck (from Miranda Maasz).
Timeout Gustavus Adolphus.
17-21Point GAC - (Jennifer Draeger) Ball handling error by Miranda Maasz.so
18-21Point GAC - (Paige Breneman) Attack error by Kayla Schoeneck (block by Angela Ahrendt; Dana Boerboom).
18-22Point MLC - (Paige Breneman) Service error.so
18-23Point MLC - (MacCartney Mendolla) Attack error by Angela Ahrendt (block by Miranda Maasz; Emily Boldt).
18-24Point MLC - (MacCartney Mendolla) Kill by Emily Boldt.
18-25Point MLC - (MacCartney Mendolla) Attack error by Jessica Grill.

3rd Set

0-1Point MLC - (Malea Noennig) Attack error by Olivia Warren.so
1-1Point GAC - (Miranda Maasz) Attack error by Rachel Larson.so
2-1Point GAC - (Olivia Warren) Attack error by Rachel Larson.
2-2Point MLC - (Olivia Warren) Attack error by Emily Phillips.so
3-2Point GAC - (Alex Anthon) Kill by Emily Phillips (from Malea Noennig).so
3-3Point MLC - (Paige Breneman) Kill by Katelyn Hauf (from Miranda Maasz).so
3-4Point MLC - (Jennifer Draeger) Attack error by Jessica Grill (block by Emily Boldt; Katelyn Hauf).
4-4Point GAC - (Jennifer Draeger) Kill by Angela Ahrendt (from Malea Noennig).so
5-4Point GAC - (Katie Ness) Kill by Jessica Grill (from Malea Noennig).
6-4Point GAC - (Katie Ness) Attack error by Katelyn Hauf (block by Angela Ahrendt; Jessica Grill).
6-5Point MLC - (Katie Ness) Service error.so
7-5Point GAC - (MacCartney Mendolla) Kill by Jessica Grill (from Malea Noennig).so
8-5Point GAC - (Jessica Grill) Kill by Angela Ahrendt (from Malea Noennig).
9-5Point GAC - (Jessica Grill) Attack error by Emily Boldt.
Timeout Martin Luther.
10-5Point GAC - (Katie Ness) Kill by Angela Ahrendt (from Malea Noennig).
10-6Point MLC - (Jessica Grill) Kill by Kayla Schoeneck (from Miranda Maasz).so
10-7Point MLC - (Kayla Schoeneck) Service ace (Jessica Grill).
11-7Point GAC - (Kayla Schoeneck) Attack error by Emily Boldt.so
11-8Point MLC - (Angela Ahrendt) Kill by Emily Boldt (from Miranda Maasz).so
11-9Point MLC - (Elizabeth Loersh) Service ace (Jessica Grill).
11-10Point MLC - (Elizabeth Loersh) Attack error by Malea Noennig.
12-10Point GAC - (Elizabeth Loersh) Service error.so
13-10Point GAC - (Malea Noennig) Service ace (MacCartney Mendolla).
14-10Point GAC - (Malea Noennig) Attack error by Rebecca Engelbrecht (block by Emily Gilman; Emily Phillips).
14-11Point MLC - (Malea Noennig) Kill by Rachel Hein (from Miranda Maasz).so
15-11Point GAC - (Miranda Maasz) Kill by Emily Gilman (from Paige Breneman).so
15-12Point MLC - (Olivia Warren) Service error.so
15-13Point MLC - (Alex Anthon) Attack error by Jessica Grill (block by Rachel Hein; Katelyn Hauf).
16-13Point GAC - (Alex Anthon) Kill by Emily Phillips (from Malea Noennig).so
16-14Point MLC - (Paige Breneman) Service error.so
16-15Point MLC - (Jennifer Draeger) Service ace (Olivia Warren).
17-15Point GAC - (Jennifer Draeger) Kill by Angela Ahrendt (from Malea Noennig).so
18-15Point GAC - (Katie Ness) Attack error by Katelyn Hauf.
19-15Point GAC - (Katie Ness) Service ace (Jennifer Draeger).
Timeout Martin Luther.
20-15Point GAC - (Katie Ness) Attack error by Emily Boldt (block by Angela Ahrendt).
21-15Point GAC - (Katie Ness) Attack error by Alex Anthon.
21-16Point MLC - (Katie Ness) Service error.so
22-16Point GAC - (MacCartney Mendolla) Kill by Angela Ahrendt (from Malea Noennig).so
23-16Point GAC - (Jessica Grill) Kill by Angela Ahrendt (from Malea Noennig).
23-17Point MLC - (Jessica Grill) Attack error by Olivia Warren.so
24-17Point GAC - (Kayla Schoeneck) Kill by Olivia Warren (from Malea Noennig).so
24-18Point MLC - (Angela Ahrendt) Kill by Miranda Maasz (from Emily Boldt).so
24-19Point MLC - (Elizabeth Loersh) Attack error by Emily Phillips.
24-20Point MLC - (Elizabeth Loersh) Kill by Rachel Hein (from Rachel Larson).
25-20Point GAC - (Elizabeth Loersh) Kill by Emily Phillips (from Malea Noennig).so

4th Set

==================== ==================== GUSTAVUS ADOLPHUS 3, MARTIN LUTHER 1 ====================
1-0Point GAC - (Miranda Maasz) Kill by Olivia Warren (from Malea Noennig).so
2-0Point GAC - (Malea Noennig) Kill by Emily Gilman (from Malea Noennig).
2-1Point MLC - (Malea Noennig) Attack error by Olivia Warren (block by Katelyn Hauf; Rachel Hein).so
3-1Point GAC - (Alex Anthon) Kill by Emily Phillips (from Malea Noennig).so
4-1Point GAC - (Olivia Warren) Service ace (Alex Anthon).
5-1Point GAC - (Olivia Warren) Kill by Emily Phillips (from Malea Noennig).
5-2Point MLC - (Olivia Warren) Kill by Kayla Schoeneck (from Miranda Maasz).so
5-3Point MLC - (Jennifer Draeger) Kill by Kayla Schoeneck.
5-4Point MLC - (Jennifer Draeger) Kill by Emily Boldt (from Miranda Maasz).
6-4Point GAC - (Jennifer Draeger) Kill by Jessica Grill (from Malea Noennig).so
7-4Point GAC - (Paige Breneman) Service ace (Alex Anthon).
7-5Point MLC - (Paige Breneman) Kill by Kayla Schoeneck (from Miranda Maasz).so
8-5Point GAC - (MacCartney Mendolla) Kill by Angela Ahrendt (from Malea Noennig).so
9-5Point GAC - (Katie Ness) Kill by Jessica Grill (from Malea Noennig).
10-5Point GAC - (Katie Ness) Service ace (Kayla Schoeneck).
Timeout Martin Luther.
10-6Point MLC - (Katie Ness) Kill by Emily Boldt, block error by Angela Ahrendt.so
10-7Point MLC - (Kayla Schoeneck) Attack error by Jessica Grill.
10-8Point MLC - (Kayla Schoeneck) Kill by Rachel Larson (from Miranda Maasz).
11-8Point GAC - (Kayla Schoeneck) Service error.so
12-8Point GAC - (Jessica Grill) Kill by Olivia Warren (from Malea Noennig).
13-8Point GAC - (Jessica Grill) Service ace (MacCartney Mendolla).
13-9Point MLC - (Jessica Grill) Kill by Kayla Schoeneck (from Miranda Maasz).so
14-9Point GAC - (Elizabeth Loersh) Kill by Angela Ahrendt (from Malea Noennig).so
15-9Point GAC - (Angela Ahrendt) Attack error by Rachel Hein.
16-9Point GAC - (Angela Ahrendt) Service ace (MacCartney Mendolla).
17-9Point GAC - (Angela Ahrendt) Service ace (Jennifer Draeger).
17-10Point MLC - (Angela Ahrendt) Attack error by Olivia Warren (block by Miranda Maasz; Rachel Hein).so
17-11Point MLC - (Miranda Maasz) Attack error by Emily Phillips (block by Rachel Hein; Rachel Larson).
18-11Point GAC - (Miranda Maasz) Attack error by Rachel Larson.so
19-11Point GAC - (Malea Noennig) Service ace (Rachel Larson).
20-11Point GAC - (Malea Noennig) Kill by Emily Phillips (from Emily Gilman).
21-11Point GAC - (Malea Noennig) Attack error by Rebecca Engelbrecht.
Timeout Martin Luther.
22-11Point GAC - (Malea Noennig) Attack error by Katelyn Hauf.
22-12Point MLC - (Malea Noennig) Kill by Rachel Hein (from Miranda Maasz).so
22-13Point MLC - (Alex Anthon) Service ace (Jessica Grill).
23-13Point GAC - (Alex Anthon) Service error.so
24-13Point GAC - (Olivia Warren) Kill by Emily Phillips (from Malea Noennig).
25-13Point GAC - (Olivia Warren) Attack error by Rachel Hein.