In this lab, you will produce the core of a compiler by defining classes for an object-oriented Abstract Syntax Tree (AST) that can generate assembly language code. (In MCS-287 you worked with ASTs, but they provided methods for evaluating themselves, not for translating themselves into assembly language. That is, you developed an interpreter rather than a compiler.)
My default assumption is that you will work within Eclipse on one of the MCS Department computers running OS X. If this is correct, you can stop reading this section.
If you would rather not work within Eclipse, you can unzip the
c1.zip file rather than importing it into Eclipse. In a command-line terminal window, change directory into the
c1 directory. To build and test the compiler, use the
ant command. If you want to specify a different target for
ant, you can do that on the command line, for example
If you would rather work on your own computer, I don't promise I will support you if you run into technical difficulties. In addition to
ant, you'll need the
clang compiler, which is packaged with the OS X developer tools and is also freely available on the web for other systems.
If you are using a system other than OS X, you will need to edit one of my souce files, Target.java, as described by a comment within that file.
If you are using Windows, it would be best to edit build.xml so that the definition (near the top of the file) for executable is set to testProgram.exe instead of testProgram. Without this, the normal build works fine but the if you use the "clean" target, the executable doesn't get deleted.
Rather than starting from a completely blank slate, download
c1.zip and import it into Eclipse as an existing project. You will get a project
c1 that contains
directory that contains various source files, mostly written in Java. The
provides rules that the
ant tool can use to
automate the building and testing of your compiler. I briefly
describe this in the next section and will be explaining it more (with
a demonstration) at the beginning of the first lab period.
The Java code in the
src directory is documented using
the javadoc tool, which produces HTML web pages of documentation
from the Java code, taking into account specially formatted
comments. I've got the documentation linked here
as a convenience, though the next section describes how you can
generate your own copy. (This will be important once you start
modifying the compiler. My copy of the documentation won't include
your changes, whereas yours will.) You should read through this
documenation as well as the source code and then try it out as
described in the next section. If any of the code is mysterious to
you, ask me questions; we've got a nice small class.
TestAST.java file contains the main program for
this very primitive compiler; the other files provide supporting
classes. If you look at the main program, you will see that one way
in which this compiler is very primitive is that it has no way to
read in the program it is compiling. Instead, it has hardwired into
it a single program to compile, created by invocations of the
constructors for AST classes. In your testing, you will want to
make changes to what program gets compiled by changing what
constructors are called. Currently the program consists of the
following: print out a line containing the constant 17. You'll see
that the relevant classes for this are defined, but no others. For
example, there are no AST classes for arithmetic expressions such as
sums and products, just for constants and procedure calls.
In Eclipse, select
build.xml, pop up the context-sensitive menu, and from "Run As" select "Ant Build...".
In the "Refresh" tab, check the box for "Refresh resources upon completion."
You should be able to leave everything else alone; in particular, the "Targets" tab should be set to the default target, test_ast. Click the "Run" button.
You should see output describing the whole
multi-step process; near the end, the value 17 should be printed out
by running the generated code.
When testing out a compiler, it is never enough just to run the
generated code and see that it behaves correctly. You should also
manually inspect the code and make sure it looks right; sometimes you
will catch a bug in your compiler that didn't wind up causing a
misbehavior in testing. In this case, after running
you should look at the LLVM assembly language output in
You can also use
ant to perform other tasks by selecting a different target. In
doc target will produce
doc directory containing javadoc files generated from
the Java source code. To look at this documentation, open the
doc/index.html in a web browser.
You should add five new AST classes for sum, difference, product,
quotient, and remainder expressions, called
RemainderExpr. The constructor for each of
these should take two
Expr arguments, the left and right
operands. Each should be able to generate the appropriate assembly
code; this process will involve recursively generating the assembly
code for the two operands. Note that your generated code should be very
plodding: it should contain the assembly code for one operand, the
code for the other operand, and then an arithmetic operation. You
might recognize that the arithmetic could all be done at compile time
and a single constant emitted. That is an important optimization,
known as constant folding. We'll get to it later. The
straightforward code is a better model for what is needed when you add
A typical LLVM instruction to add two values together would be as follows:
%t3 = add i32 %t1, %t2
The instructions for the other arithmetic operations are similar,
using the LLVM
If you write these five new classes directly as subclasses of
Expr, you will find they are very similar. To avoid
replicated code, factor out the common essence into a new class that they
all have as a superclass, and which itself is a subclass of
Test your additions out by making suitable changes in
TestAST.java. You should try programs that contain nested
operations, such as a sum of two products. You can even
try out all five operations in a single test program.
Please upload to moodle a zip file of your modified project. Your new classes should include javadoc comments, similar to those in the files I provided.